The impact of hypertension and diabetes on outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
ABSTRACT Information relating the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention to diabetes mellitus or hypertension is limited. The study objective was to describe the outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to diabetes and hypertension.
Data were extracted from 5 national registers: the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register (all percutaneous coronary interventions), the Prescribed Drug Registry (all prescribed pharmaceuticals purchased in Swedish pharmacies), the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register (data on myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke, and congestive heart failure from in-hospital and specialist health care), and the National Population Register and Cause of Death Register (data on death). We included all "first percutaneous coronary interventions" between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008 (n=44,268; followed an average of 1.9 [± 0.9] years).
Mortality was 6.4% and highest in patients with diabetes plus hypertension. Hypertension per se did not increase mortality or the risk for repeat intervention, but carried a 10% increased risk for subsequent myocardial infarction, increasing to a 4-fold increase when combined with diabetes. Stroke occurred in 2%; the importance of hypertension was evident in nondiabetic patients, but even stronger in diabetic patients. Congestive heart failure caused hospital admission in 8%, with a negative influence from hypertension with and without diabetes.
After percutaneous coronary intervention and with modern pharmacotherapy, diabetes had a negative effect on the outcome, especially when combined with hypertension. Hypertension per se was not associated with increased mortality but with an increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure, probably related to widespread coronary artery disease. Improved diabetes care might improve the prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: During the past half-century, the ECG has been used extensively for the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy. Persons with ECG evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy are at increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. Subjects from the Framingham Heart Study with ECG evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy were eligible for this investigation if they were free of cardiovascular disease and did not have complete bundle-branch block or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Logistic regression analyses of pooled biennial examinations were used to determine risk for cardiovascular disease as a function of baseline voltage (sum of R wave in aVL plus S wave in V3) and repolarization and as a function of serial changes in these ECG features of hypertrophy. The eligible sample consisted of 274 men (mean age, 60 years) and 250 women (mean age, 64 years) who contributed 2660 person-examinations. During follow-up, there were 269 new cardiovascular events. Compared with subjects in the first quartile of voltage at baseline, the age-adjusted odds ratio for cardiovascular disease among subjects in the fourth quartile was 3.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 5.07) in men and 3.29 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.09) in women. Compared with a normal repolarization pattern, the presence of severe repolarization abnormalities was associated with an age-adjusted odds ratio of 5.84 (95% CI, 3.55 to 9.62) in men and 2.47 (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.42) in women. Subjects with a serial decline in voltage were at lower risk for cardiovascular disease than were those with no serial change (men: odds ratio after adjusting for age and baseline voltage, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.84; women: odds ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.30 to 1.04). In contrast, those with a serial increase in voltage were at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (men: odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.03; women: odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.84). Compared with those with no serial change, an improvement in repolarization was associated with a marginally significant reduction in cardiovascular risk in men (odds ratio after adjusting for age and baseline repolarization, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.01). Worsening of repolarization was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease in both sexes (men: odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05 to 3.40; women: odds ratio, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.81). The results of this investigation suggest that regression of ECG features of left ventricular hypertrophy confers an improvement in risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas serial worsening imposes increased risk. The benefits to be derived from regression of left ventricular hypertrophy must be confirmed in other clinical settings.Circulation 11/1994; 90(4):1786-93. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Improvements in the identification and control of hypertension have helped define populations at risk for hypertension and delineated the role of hypertension as a risk factor in ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Epidemiologic data document the high prevalence of hypertension among the elderly and black populations. Beginning in the 1970s, a new perspective on the identification and treatment of hypertension began to emerge with greater emphasis on blood pressure control, particularly among these high-risk groups. By the early 1990s, most hypertensive individuals were being treated and blood pressure was under control in 55% of hypertensive persons overall. Although the importance of elevated diastolic pressure has traditionally been emphasized, in recent years the clinical implications of isolated systolic hypertension and the benefit of treating elevated systolic pressure have been recognized. Coronary heart disease is associated with definite hypertension (> or =160/95); however, the presence of other risk factors such as elevated plasma levels of cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cigarette smoking, and diabetes mellitus create a synergy with even mild hypertension (140-159/90-94 mm Hg) to increase coronary risk. A different situation is present for cardiac failure. Data from the Framingham Heart Study demonstrate that hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular hypertrophy, and valvular heart disease were associated with an increased relative risk for cardiac failure. The relative risk for cardiac failure was greatest for persons with a previous myocardial infarction, and hypertension and previously diagnosed coronary heart disease were important precursors of cardiac failure.The American Journal of Cardiology 11/1997; 80(9B):3J-8J. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We tested the prognostic value of a new electrocardiographic (ECG) method (Perugia score) for diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in essential hypertension and compared it with five standard methods (Cornell voltage, Framingham criterion, Romhilt-Estes point score, left ventricular strain, Sokolow-Lyon voltage). Several standard ECG methods for assessment of LVH are used in the clinical setting, but a comparative prognostic assessment is lacking. A total of 1,717 white hypertensive subjects (mean age 52 years; 51% men) were prospectively followed up for up to 10 years (mean 3.3). At entry, the prevalence of LVH was 17.8% (Perugia score), 9.1% (Cornell), 3.9% (Framingham), 5.2% (Romhilt-Estes), 6.4% (strain) and 13.1% (Sokolow-Lyon). During follow-up there were 159 major cardiovascular morbid events (33 fatal). The event rate was higher in the subjects with than in those without LVH (all p < 0.001) according to all methods except the Sokolow-Lyon method. By multivariate analysis, an independent association between LVH and cardiovascular disease risk was maintained by the Perugia score (hazard ratio [HR] 2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 2.8) and the Framingham (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2), Romhilt-Estes (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.7 to 4.1) and strain methods (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.2). The Perugia score showed the highest population-attributable risk for cardiovascular events, accounting for 15.6% of all cases, whereas the Framingham, Romhilt-Estes and strain methods accounted for 3.0%, 7.4% and 6.8% of all events, respectively. LVH diagnosed by the Perugia score was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 4.21, 95% CI 2.1 to 8.7), with a population-attributable risk of 37.0%. The Perugia score carried the highest population-attributable risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with classic methods for detection of LVH. Traditional interpretation of standard electrocardiography maintains an important role for cardiovascular risk stratification in essential hypertension.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/1998; 31(2):383-90. · 14.09 Impact Factor