The Impact of Hypertension and Diabetes on Outcome in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
ABSTRACT Information relating the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention to diabetes mellitus or hypertension is limited. The study objective was to describe the outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to diabetes and hypertension.
Data were extracted from 5 national registers: the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register (all percutaneous coronary interventions), the Prescribed Drug Registry (all prescribed pharmaceuticals purchased in Swedish pharmacies), the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register (data on myocardial infarction, revascularization, stroke, and congestive heart failure from in-hospital and specialist health care), and the National Population Register and Cause of Death Register (data on death). We included all "first percutaneous coronary interventions" between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2008 (n=44,268; followed an average of 1.9 [± 0.9] years).
Mortality was 6.4% and highest in patients with diabetes plus hypertension. Hypertension per se did not increase mortality or the risk for repeat intervention, but carried a 10% increased risk for subsequent myocardial infarction, increasing to a 4-fold increase when combined with diabetes. Stroke occurred in 2%; the importance of hypertension was evident in nondiabetic patients, but even stronger in diabetic patients. Congestive heart failure caused hospital admission in 8%, with a negative influence from hypertension with and without diabetes.
After percutaneous coronary intervention and with modern pharmacotherapy, diabetes had a negative effect on the outcome, especially when combined with hypertension. Hypertension per se was not associated with increased mortality but with an increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure, probably related to widespread coronary artery disease. Improved diabetes care might improve the prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: The synergistic effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension on mid-term outcome among acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still controversial. A total of 2438 patients with acute MI who underwent PCI from January 2007 to November 2010 were studied. Patients were stratified to four groups according to the presence of DM or hypertension and followed up during 12 months. We analyzed the influence of hypertension and DM on major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, recurrent MI, repeated coronary artery revascularization). No history of hypertension or DM was found in 35.0%, a history of hypertension in 27.2%, a history of DM in 15.0%, and a history of both disease entities in 22.8%. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in hypertensive DM group (15.9% vs. 22.9% vs. 28.8% vs. 37.0%, log-rank p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, hypertension and DM were meaningful predictors of mid-term mortality, and the combination of the two was a stronger predictor (hazard ratio=1.790; 95% confidence interval=1.313-2.442; p<0.001). After PCI, acute MI patients with a history of DM or hypertension had a higher mid-term mortality than acute MI patients without such a history. The combination of DM and hypertension appeared to be more strongly associated with mortality than DM or hypertension alone.Journal of Cardiology 07/2012; 60(4):257-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2012.06.003 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor of morbidity, mortality and economic cost to society. Diabetic patients are at risk of having microvascular or macrovascular disorders of diabetes. Postoperative anemia have wide spectrum of some early complications that require more care in hospitalization stays. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate effect of preoperative anemia on short-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing elective off-pump CABG. This study conducted on 86 diabetic patients underwent elective off-pump CABG surgery from August to October 2011, in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran. The patients had hemoglobin concentration between 10-12 mg/dl, patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation and renal and respiratory dysfunction were excluded from this study. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups; the normal group (n=42) that had hemoglobin concentration ~ 12-15 g/dl and the anemic group (n=44) had hemoglobin concentration~7-10 g/dl. We evaluated post-CABG variables including incidence of atrial fibrillation and early morbidity such as infection, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunctions, ICU or hospital stay and early mortality. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables. The mean age of the patients was 52.51±6.9 years, from all of patients 64 cases (74.4%) were male and 22 cases (445.6%) were female. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was observed in 17 cases (19.8%), 7 cases (16.7%) of whom were in normal group and 10 cases (22.7%) of whom were in anemia group. anemia could significantly increase hospital stay (P=0.0001) but no ICU stay. Preoperative anemia did not affect the incidence of atrial fibrillation and early complications and mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG. However, anemia could increase postoperative hospital stay and renal dysfunction significantly.Acta medica Iranica 09/2012; 50(9):615-8.
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ABSTRACT: Restenosis is pathophysiological process occurring in 10-15% of patients submitted to revascularization procedures of coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries. It can be considered as an excessive healing reaction of the vascular wall submitted to arterial/venous bypass graft interposition, endarterectomy or angioplasty. The advent of bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents and of the more recent drug-eluting balloons, significantly reduced but not eliminated the incidence of restenosis, which remains a clinically relevant problem. Biomedical research in preclinical animal models of (re)stenosis, despite its limitations, enormously contributed to the identification of processes involved in restenosis progression, going well beyond the initial dogma of a primarily proliferative disease. Although the main molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying restenosis have been well described, new signalling molecules and cell types controlling the progress of restenosis are continuously discovered. In particular, microRNAs and vascular progenitor cells recently revealed a key role in this pathophysiological process. Also, the advanced, highly-sensitive highthroughput analyses of molecular alterations at transcriptome, proteome and metabolome level occurring in injured vessels in animal models of disease and in human specimens, are serving as a basis to identify novel potential therapeutic targets for restenosis. Molecular analyses are also contributing to the identification of reliable circulating biomarkers predictive of post-interventional restenosis in patients, that could be potentially helpful in the establishment of an early diagnosis and therapy. This review summarizes the most recent and promising therapeutic strategies identified in experimental models of (re)stenosis and potentially translatable in patients submitted to revascularization procedures.Clinical science 12/2014; 127(11). DOI:10.1042/CS20140131 · 5.63 Impact Factor