Blockade of CD27/CD70 pathway to reduce the generation of memory T cells and markedly prolong the survival of heart allografts in presensitized mice.
ABSTRACT Alloreactive memory T cells are a major obstacle to transplantation acceptance due to their capacity for accelerated rejection.
C57BL/6 mice that had rejected BALB/c skin grafts 4 weeks earlier were used as recipients. The recipient mice were treated with anti-CD154/LFA-1 with or without anti-CD70 during the primary skin transplantation and anti-CD154/LFA-1 or not during the secondary transplantation of BALB/c heart. We evaluated the impact of combinations of antibody-mediated blockade on the generation of memory T cells and graft survival after fully MHC-mismatched transplantations.
One month after the primary skin transplantation, the proportions of CD4(+) memory T cells/CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+)memory T cells/CD8(+) T cells in the anti-CD154/LFA-1 combination group were 47.32±4.28% and 23.18±2.77%, respectively. In the group that included anti-CD70 treatment, the proportions were reduced to 34.10±2.71% and 12.19±3.52% (P<0.05 when comparing the proportion of memory T cells between the two groups). The addition of anti-CD70 to the treatment regimen prolonged the mean survival time following secondary heart transplantation from 10days to more than 90days (P<0.001). Furthermore, allogenic proliferation of recipient splenic T cells and graft-infiltrating lymphocytes were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the proportion of regulatory T cells was increased to 9.46±1.48% on day 100 post-transplantation (P<0.05).
The addition of anti-CD70 to the anti-CD154/LFA-1 combination given during the primary transplantation reduced the generation of memory T cells. This therapy regimen provided a potential means to alleviate the accelerated rejection mediated by memory T cells during secondary heart transplantation and markedly prolong the survival of heart allografts.
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ABSTRACT: Poly(amido ethylenimine) polymers, a new type of peptidomimetic polymer, containing multiple disulfide bonds (SS-PAEIs) designed to degrade after delivery of plasmid DNA (pDNA) into the cell were synthesized and investigated as new carriers for triggered intracellular gene delivery. More specifically, three SS-PAEIs were synthesized from Michael addition reactions between cystamine bisacrylamide (CBA) and three different ethylene amine monomers, i.e., ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), or triethylenetetramine (TETA). Complete addition reactions were confirmed by (1)H NMR. The molecular weight, buffer capacity, and relative degree of branching for each SS-PAEI was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), acid-base titration, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), respectively. Physicochemical characteristics of polymer/pDNA complexes (polyplexes) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, particle size, and zeta-potential measurements. All three SS-PAEIs effectively complex pDNA to form nanoparticles with diameters less than 200 nm and positive surface charges of approximately 32 mV. The in vitro gene transfer properties of SS-PAEIs were evaluated using mouse embryonic fibroblast cell (NIH3T3), primary bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC), and rat aortic smooth muscle cell (A7R5) lines. Interestingly, polyplexes based on all three SS-PAEIs exhibited remarkably high levels of reporter gene expression with nearly 20x higher transfection efficiency than polyethylenimine 25k. The high transfection efficiency was maintained in the presence of 10% serum in the transfection medium. Furthermore, confocal microscopy experiments using labeled pDNA indicated that polyplexes of SS-PAEI displayed greater intracellular distribution of pDNA as compared to PEI, most likely due to environmentally triggered release. Therefore, SS-PAEIs are a new class of transfection agents that facilitate high gene expression while maintaining a low level of toxicity.Bioconjugate Chemistry 08/2006; 17(5):1233-40. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The continually increasing wealth of knowledge about the role of genes involved in acquired or hereditary diseases renders the delivery of regulatory genes or nucleic acids into affected cells a potentially promising strategy. Apart from viral vectors, non-viral gene delivery systems have recently received increasing interest, due to safety concerns associated with insertional mutagenesis of retro-viral vectors. Especially cationic polymers may be particularly attractive for the delivery of nucleic acids, since they allow a vast synthetic modification of their structure enabling the investigation of structure-function relationships. Successful clinical application of synthetic polycations for gene delivery will depend primarily on three factors, namely (1) an enhancement of the transfection efficiency, (2) a reduction in toxicity and (3) an ability of the vectors to overcome numerous biological barriers after systemic or local administration. Among the polycations presently used for gene delivery, poly(ethylene imine), PEI, takes a prominent position, due to its potential for endosomal escape. PEI as well as derivatives of PEI currently under investigation for DNA and RNA delivery will be discussed. This review focuses on structure-function relationships and the physicochemical aspects of polyplexes which influence basic characteristics, such as complex formation, stability or in vitro cytotoxicity, to provide a basis for their application under in vivo conditions. Rational design of optimized polycations is an objective for further research and may provide the basis for a successful cationic polymer-based gene delivery system in the future.The Journal of Gene Medicine 09/2005; 7(8):992-1009. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(β-aminoesters) 1−3 were synthesized via the addition of N,N‘-dimethylethylenediamine, piperazine, and 4,4‘-trimethylenedipiperidine to 1,4-butanediol diacrylate. Polymerization proceeded exclusively via the conjugate addition of the secondary amines to the bis(acrylate ester). Polymers were isolated in up to 86% yields with molecular weights ranging up to 31 200 relative to polystyrene standards. The polymers degraded hydrolytically in acidic and alkaline media to yield 1,4-butanediol and β-amino acids 4a−6a and the degradation kinetics were investigated at pH 5.1 and 7.4. In general, the polymers degraded more rapidly at pH 7.4 than at pH 5.1. In initial screening assays, both the polymers and their degradation products were determined to be noncytotoxic relative to poly(ethylene imine), a polymer conventionally employed as a synthetic transfection vector. Polymers 1−3 interacted electrostatically with polyanionic plasmid DNA in water and buffer at physiological pH, as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, quasi-elastic dynamic light scattering (QELS), and ζ-potential measurements. All three polymers condensed DNA into soluble DNA/polymer particles on the order of 50−200 nm. Particles formed from polymers 1 and 2 aggregated extensively, while particles formed from polymer 3 exhibited positive ζ-potentials (e.g., +10 to +15 mV) and did not aggregate for up to 18 h. The nanometer-sized dimensions and reduced cytotoxicities of these DNA/polymer complexes suggest that these types of polymers may be useful as degradable polymeric gene transfer vectors.Journal of The American Chemical Society - J AM CHEM SOC. 10/2000; 122(44).