HIV vaccines: progress to date.
ABSTRACT The quest for an effective and safe HIV-1 vaccine has been and still is the aspiration of many scientists and clinicians worldwide. Until recently, the hopes for an effective vaccine were thwarted by the disappointing results and early termination in September 2007 of the STEP study, which saw a subgroup of male vaccine recipients at an increased risk of HIV-1 infection, and the failure of earlier trials of vaccines based on recombinant envelope proteins to provide any level of protection. The results of the STEP study raised important questions in the field of HIV vaccines, including the use of recombinant adenovirus vectors as immunogens, the rationale for the development of T-cell-based vaccines and the development pathway for these vaccines, in terms of assessment of immunogenicity and the challenge models used. The study of neutralizing antibodies has demonstrated that the induction of high-titre, broadly neutralizing antibodies in the majority of recipients is likely to be highly problematic. However, the results of the RV144 Thai trial released in September 2009 have brought new optimism to the field. This study employed envelope-based immunogens delivered as a priming vaccination with a recombinant poxvirus vector and boosting with recombinant proteins. This regimen provided modest protection to HIV-1 infection in a low-risk population. Although the correlates of protection are currently unknown, extensive studies are underway to try to determine these. Neutralizing antibodies were not induced in the RV144 study; however, considerable titres of binding antibodies to HIV-1 viral envelope (Env) were. It is speculated that these antibodies may have provided a means of protection by a mechanism such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, no CD8+ T-cell responses were induced, but robust CD4+ T-cell responses were, and correlates of protection are being sought by analysing the quality of this aspect of the vaccine-induced immune response. The current paradigm for an optimal HIV-1 vaccine is to design immunogens and vaccination protocols that allow the induction of both broadly neutralizing humoral and broadly reactive and effective cell-mediated immunity, to act at sites of possible infection and post-infection, respectively. However, this is challenged by the results of the RV144 trial as neither of these responses were induced but modest protection was observed. Understanding the biology and immunopathology of HIV-1 early following infection, its modes of transmission and the human immune system's response to the virus should aid in the rational design of vaccines of increased efficacy.
- SourceAvailable from: Maria Angeles Muñoz-Fernández[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Antiviral Research 11/2014; 113C:33-48. DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.10.014 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this investigation was to develop a thermosensitive vaginal gel containing raltegravir+efavirenz loaded PLGA nanoparticles (RAL-EFV-NPs) for pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV. RAL-EFV-NPs were fabricated using a modified emulsion-solvent evaporation method and characterized for size and zeta potential. The average size and surface charge of RAL-EFV-NP were 81.8±6.4nm and -23.18±7.18mV respectively. The average encapsulation efficiency of raltegravir and efavirenz was 55.5% and 98.2% respectively. Thermosensitive vaginal gel containing RAL-EFV-NPs was successfully prepared using a combination of Pluronic F127 (20% w/v) and Pluronic F68 (1% w/v). Incorporation RAL-EFV-NPs in the gel did not result in nanoparticle aggregation and RAL-EFV-NPs containing gel showed thermogelation at 32.5°C. The RAL-EFV-NPs were evaluated for inhibition of HIV-1(NL4-3) using TZM-bl indicator cells. The EC(90) of RAL-EFV-NPs was lower than raltegravir+efavirenz (RAL-EFV) solution but did not reach significance. Compared to control HeLa cells without any treatment, RAL-EFV-NPs or blank gel were not cytotoxic for 14days in vitro. The intracellular levels of efavirenz in RAL-EFV-NPs treated HeLa cells were above the EC(90) for 14days whereas raltegravir intracellular concentrations were eliminated within 6days. Transwell experiments of NPs-in-gel demonstrated rapid transfer of fluorescent nanoparticles from the gel and uptake in HeLa cells within 30min. These data demonstrate the potential of antiretroviral NP-embedded vagina gels for long-term vaginal pre-exposure prophylaxis of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.Antiviral research 10/2012; 96(3). DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.09.015 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Researchers have been working hard for more than 20 years to develop safe and effective microbicides to empower women to better control their own sexual life and to protect themselves against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Microbicide classes include moderately specific macromolecular anionic polymers that block HIV and other STIs, and HIV specific drugs that inhibit viral entry and reverse transcription. Based on innovative nanotechnology design, we showed a novel water-soluble anionic carbosilane dendrimer (2G-S16) as a propitious molecule against HIV-infection. A state-of-the-art research was accomplished that focused on biomedical cutting-edge techniques such as in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity assays performed on female rabbit genital tracts, simulate in vitro model of vaginal epithelium in order to evaluate HIV transmission blockade through the monolayer, complete gene expression profiling experiment to study deregulated genes after 2G-S16 exposition, molecular dynamics simulation of 2G-S16 molecule against principal proteins of HIV particles and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile study. Therefore, a high-throughput study and detailed analysis of the results were achieved in this article. We provided promising outcomes to encourage 2G-S16 as a hopeful microbicide.Journal of Controlled Release 05/2012; 161(3):949-58. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.04.050 · 7.26 Impact Factor