Effect of the Heavy Metals on Developmental Stages of Ovule, Pollen, and Root Proteins in Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae)
ABSTRACT Heavy metals are some of the most important environmental pollutants. Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Also, the presence of elevated levels of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in gene expression and synthesis of metal-detoxifying peptides. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate some microscopic effects of heavy metals on the formation, development, and structure of pollen, ovule, and embryo and also root proteins in Reseda lutea L. For this purpose, the vicinity of Ahangaran lead-zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran) was chosen as a polluted area where amount of some heavy metals was several times higher than the natural soils. Flowers and young buds were collected from non-polluted and polluted plants, fixed in FAA(70), and studied during developmental stages by light microscopy. The results showed that heavy metals can cause some abnormalities during the pollen and ovule developmental process. The number of pollen grains was decreased, and their shape was changed. Increasing in thickness of the callosic wall and stabilizing of tapetum layer were observed in polluted plants. Asymmetrical formation of ovular integuments, degradation of egg apparatus, irregular formation of embryo sac, considerable vacuolation of embryonic cells, and degeneration of embryo in the late stage of heart-shaped embryo are the results of heavy metal pollution. For protein studies, young roots were harvested from plants exposed to pollution and non-exposed to pollution at the same time. Root proteins were extracted and studied by electrophoresis. The results revealed that some new proteins were synthesized in polluted samples that probably elevate plant tolerance to heavy metals.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Abdolkarim Chehregani Rad, May 17, 2015
SourceAvailable from: A. M. Dunaev
Chapter: Annex 1: Country reports-Russian Federation; in: Harry Harmens and Gina Mills (Eds.). (2014). Air pollution: deposition to and impacts on vegetation in (South-)East Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia (EECCA/SEE) and South-East Asia. ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,Bangor, UKAir pollution: deposition to and impacts on vegetation in (South-)East Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia (EECCA/SEE) and South-East Asia, Edited by Harry Harmens and Gina Mills, 03/2014: chapter Russian Federation Country Report: pages 65-67; Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,Bangor, UK., ISBN: 978-1-906698-48-5
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ABSTRACT: Pollen morphology of seven Alyssum L. taxa growing on serpentine soils in different places in the European Mediterranean macrobioclimate territory were studied, described and compared. Cluster analysis was performed to show similarity between species and their populations. The shape of the pollen grains varies among the species and among the grains within the same anther. The pollen grains are 3-colpate, prolate, with long and narrow colpi reaching the poles. The ornamentation of the exine varies from micro-reticulate to reticulate between the species. Pollen sterility/fertility was also calculated. The highest percentage of sterile pollen (73.76%) was calculated for Alyssum murale subsp. murale and the lowest (9.54%) for A. bertolonii subsp. bertolonii. All species are representatives of sect. Odontarrhena (C.A.Meyer) Koch well known as Ni-hyperaccumulators. Nickel and other elements present in pollen and stamen were studied by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The stamen parts of all species were micromorphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Probe (EDX). Accumulation of Ni was detected in the stamens of all studied species and rarely in the pollen grains. The distribution patterns of Ni were similar among species examined.Plant Biosystems 12/2014; DOI:10.1080/11263504.2014.989284 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased ratification of the Protocols of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) was identified as a high priority in the new long-term strategy of the Convention. Increased ratification and full implementation of air pollution abatement policies is particularly desirable for countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and South-Eastern Europe (SEE). Hence, scientific activities within the Convention will need to involve these countries. In the current report, the ICP Vegetation has reviewed current knowledge on the deposition of air pollutants to and their impacts on vegetation in EECCA (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) and SEE countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey). As an outreach activity to Asia we have also reviewed current knowledge on this subject for the Malé Declaration countries in South-East Asia (SEA; Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Air pollution is a main concern in Asia due to enhanced industrialisation, which is directly linked to continued strong economic growth in recent decades. In these regions, there is generally a lack of an extensive network of monitoring stations to assess the magnitude of air concentrations and depositions of pollutants. In addition, emission inventories are often incomplete or not reported at all for some pollutants, which makes it difficult to validate atmospheric transport models for these regions. Furthermore, there is often a lack of coordinated monitoring networks to assess the impacts of air pollution on vegetation. Hence, the risk of adverse impacts on vegetation often has to be assessed using atmospheric transport models in conjunction with metrics developed to compute the risk of air pollution impacts on vegetation, such as critical loads and levels. Here we have focussed on the following air pollutants: nitrogen, ozone, heavy metals, POPs (EECCA/SEE countries) and aerosols, including black carbon as a component (South-East Asia).