Article

Effect of the Heavy Metals on Developmental Stages of Ovule, Pollen, and Root Proteins in Reseda lutea L. (Resedaceae)

Laboratory of Plant Cell Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
Biological trace element research (Impact Factor: 1.61). 03/2011; 143(3):1777-88. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-011-9009-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heavy metals are some of the most important environmental pollutants. Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Also, the presence of elevated levels of heavy metal ions triggers a wide range of cellular responses including changes in gene expression and synthesis of metal-detoxifying peptides. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate some microscopic effects of heavy metals on the formation, development, and structure of pollen, ovule, and embryo and also root proteins in Reseda lutea L. For this purpose, the vicinity of Ahangaran lead-zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran) was chosen as a polluted area where amount of some heavy metals was several times higher than the natural soils. Flowers and young buds were collected from non-polluted and polluted plants, fixed in FAA(70), and studied during developmental stages by light microscopy. The results showed that heavy metals can cause some abnormalities during the pollen and ovule developmental process. The number of pollen grains was decreased, and their shape was changed. Increasing in thickness of the callosic wall and stabilizing of tapetum layer were observed in polluted plants. Asymmetrical formation of ovular integuments, degradation of egg apparatus, irregular formation of embryo sac, considerable vacuolation of embryonic cells, and degeneration of embryo in the late stage of heart-shaped embryo are the results of heavy metal pollution. For protein studies, young roots were harvested from plants exposed to pollution and non-exposed to pollution at the same time. Root proteins were extracted and studied by electrophoresis. The results revealed that some new proteins were synthesized in polluted samples that probably elevate plant tolerance to heavy metals.

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