Cell type-specific release of matrix-metallo-proteinase-9 by bacterial chemoattractant in human blood phagocytic leukocytes

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.28). 01/2011; 4(1):67-73.
Source: PubMed


Stimulation of phagocytic leukocytes with bacterial chemoattractant resulted in the release of matrix metal-loproteinases (MMPs). Little is known about the mechanisms of bacterial chemoattractant regulation of MMP in phagocytic leukocytes. We report here that the mechanisms of the bacterial chemotactic peptidefMLP-induced MMP -9 release in monocytes appeared to be different from fMLP-stimulated MMP-9 release in neutrophils. In freshly prepared peripheral blood monocytes, fMLP induces MMP-9 release, starting at 8 h after stimulation. These functions of fMLP is accompanied by an increase in TNFα expression, and mediated through the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in monocytes. However, neutrophil preparations that responded to fMLP with MMP-9 release did not require activation of ERK1/2 and TNFα expression. These results suggest a different role of fMLP in MMP-9 expression in neutrophils and monocytes, and the signal molecules involved in mediating this effect in human blood monocytes stimulated by bacterial chemoattractant.

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    • "De-novo transcription of MMP-9 requires several hours and is less likely a major source at the two-hour reperfusion collection in the current study, than release of existing MMP-9. Given that endothelial cells, neutrophils, and monocytes are all sources of MMP-9 [27], [28] and MMP-9 levels were all increased after the ischemia/reperfusion induced by hemorrhagic shock, MMP-9 may be activated by the ischemia associated with hemorrhagic shock rather than only by specific events in the intestine. This hypothesis is supported by our finding that MMP levels are increased in plasma at 15 minutes of ischemia, while pancreatic proteases remain undetectable with current techniques in the plasma through the first hour of ischemia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with high mortality. A severe decrease in blood pressure causes the intestine, a major site of digestive enzymes, to become permeable - possibly releasing those enzymes into the circulation and peritoneal space, where they may in turn activate other enzymes, e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). If uncontrolled, these enzymes may result in pathophysiologic cleavage of receptors or plasma proteins. Our first objective was to determine, in compartments outside of the intestine (plasma, peritoneal fluid, brain, heart, liver, and lung) protease activities and select protease concentrations after hemorrhagic shock (2 hours ischemia, 2 hours reperfusion). Our second objective was to determine whether inhibition of proteases in the intestinal lumen with a serine protease inhibitor (ANGD), a process that improves survival after shock in rats, reduces the protease activities distant from the intestine. To determine the protease activity, plasma and peritoneal fluid were incubated with small peptide substrates for trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and elastase-like activities or with casein, a substrate cleaved by multiple proteases. Gelatinase activities were determined by gelatin gel zymography and a specific MMP-9 substrate. Immunoblotting was used to confirm elevated pancreatic trypsin in plasma, peritoneal fluid, and lung and MMP-9 concentrations in all samples after hemorrhagic shock. Caseinolytic, trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, elastase-like, and MMP-9 activities were all significantly (p<0.05) upregulated after hemorrhagic shock regardless of enteral pretreatment with ANGD. Pancreatic trypsin was detected by immunoblot in the plasma, peritoneal space, and lungs after hemorrhagic shock. MMP-9 concentrations and activities were significantly upregulated after hemorrhagic shock in plasma, peritoneal fluid, heart, liver, and lung. These results indicate that protease activities, including that of trypsin, increase in sites distant from the intestine after hemorrhagic shock. Proteases, including pancreatic proteases, may be shock mediators and potential targets for therapy in shock.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32672. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032672 · 3.23 Impact Factor

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