To examine the long-term oncological impact of anastomotic leakage (AL) after restorative surgery for colorectal cancer using meta-analytical methods. Outcomes evaluated were local recurrence, distant recurrence, and survival.
Recurrence after potentially curative surgery for colorectal cancer remains a significant clinical problem and has a poor prognosis. AL may be a risk factor for disease recurrence, however available studies have been conflicting. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of AL on disease recurrence and long-term survival.
Studies published between 1965 and 2009 evaluating the long-term oncological impact of AL were identified by an electronic literature search. Outcomes evaluated included local recurrence, distant recurrence, and cancer specific survival. Meta-analysis was performed using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model to compute odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Study heterogeneity was evaluated using Q statistics and I and publication bias assessed with funnel plots and Egger's test.
Twenty-one studies comprising 13 prospective nonrandomized studies, 1 prospective randomized, and 7 retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 21,902 patients. For rectal anastomoses, the odd ratios (OR) of developing a local recurrence when there was AL was 2.05 (95% CI = 1.51-2.8; P = 0.0001). For studies describing both colon and rectal anastomoses, the OR of local recurrence when there was an AL was 2.9 (95% CI = 1.78-4.71; P < 0.001). The OR of developing a distant recurrence after AL was 1.38 (95% CI = 0.96-1.99; P = 0.083). Long term cancer specific mortality was significantly higher after AL with an OR of 1.75 (95% CI = 1.47-2.1; P = 0.0001).
AL has a negative prognostic impact on local recurrence after restorative resection of rectal cancer. A significant association between colorectal AL and reduced long-term cancer specific survival was also noted. No association between AL and distant recurrence was found.
"Giaccaglia). impact on patient's outcome, involving higher morbidity and mortality, longer hospital stay and, over all, worse oncological and functional outcomes (Mirnezami et al., 2011). More than two decades have passed since surgeons have begun to use staplers in GI surgery; they help shortening operating room time, standardizing surgical technique, and are an essential tool for minimally invasive approaches (laparoscopic and robotic intracorporeal anastomosis) but they are more expensive than hand sewn technique and might have misfiring and malfunctioning during surgery (Picardi, 2002; Guivarc'h, 2004; Korolija, 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anastomotic leak after gastrointestinal surgery is a severe complication associated with relevant short and long-term sequelae. Most of the anastomoses are currently performed with a surgical stapler that is required to have appropriate characteristics in order to guarantee good performances. The aim of our study was to evaluate, ex vivo, pressure resistance and tensile strength of anastomosis performed with different circular staplers available in the market. We studied 7 circular staplers of 3 different companies, 3 of them used for gastrointestinal anastomosis and 4 staplers for hemorrhoidal prolapse excision. A total of 350 anastomoses, 50 for each of the 7 staplers, were performed using healthy pig fresh intestine, then injected saline solution and recorded the leaking pressure. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean pressure necessary to induce an anastomotic leak in the various instruments (p>0.05). For studying tensile strength, we performed a total of 350 anastomoses with 7 different circular staplers on a special strong paper (Tyvek), and then recorded the maximal tensile force that could open the anastomosis. There were statistically significant differences between one brand stapler vs other 2 companies staplers about the strength necessary to open the staple line (p<0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrated that different circular staplers of three companies available in the market give comparable anastomotic pressure resistance but different tensile strengths. This is probably due to different technical characteristics.
"Peri-operative mortality has been reported to increase from 2% to 24% in the presence of colorectal anastomosis dehiscence . Moreover, anastomotic leakage can lead to an increase in local recurrence of a rectal cancer, reducing the overall survival  . Protective defunctioning stoma is used to prevent the occurrence of anastomotic leakage complications. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional loop ileostomy (CLI) is a suitable procedure for transitory faecal diversion after colocolic or colorectal anastomosis, but it causes relevant morbidities (dehydration, discomfort, peristomal infections) and requires a second operation to be closed. We already described an alternative technique of temporary percutaneous ileostomy (TPI), which can be removed without surgery, as faecal diversion in low colorectal anastomosis. Now we report our experience with the TPI in protecting colocolic and colorectal anastomosis in urgency in elderly.
From January 2012 to June 2014, 45 patients underwent urgent surgical procedures for acute abdomen with colonic and/or rectal resections and colocolic or colorectal anastomosis with faecal diversion by TPI. Nineteen out of 45 patients were older than 70. Four low colorectal anastomoses, 10 intra-peritoneal colorectal anastomosis and 4 colocolic anastomosis were performed.
Neither intra-operative complications nor post-operative deaths were observed. None of the 19 patients treated had evidence of clinical or radiological leakage of the anastomosis. Post-operative complications occurred in 7 patients and nobody required re-intervention. No intestinal obstruction was reported in the early (30 days) post-operative period.
The TPI seems to be a valid alternative to standard ileostomy, ensuring an optimal faecal diversion both in elective surgery and in urgency. The TPI also ensures less patient discomfort and it can be easily removed without surgery, unlike the CLI. The limited duration of the faecal diversion and the uselessness of a second surgical procedure to remove the TPI are the most important advantages of this new technique, especially in elderly.
International Journal of Surgery 08/2014; 12(Suppl 2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.08.361 · 1.53 Impact Factor
"AL is a major problem in patients who undergo operations for rectal cancers. It is associated with not only postoperative morbidity and mortality, but also local recurrence and patient’s survival [8–10]. Several risk factors, including age, sex, intraoperative bleeding, obesity, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, protective diverting stoma, pelvic drainage, tumor size, tumor location, and the level of anastomosis, have been reported to be associated with AL after open LAR [11, 26–29]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Laparoscopic rectal surgery involving rectal transection and anastomosis with stapling devices is technically difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) after laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with double-stapling technique (DST) anastomosis.
This was a retrospective single-institution study of 154 rectal cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis between June 2005 and August 2013. Patient-, tumor-, and surgery-related variables were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. The outcome of interest was clinical AL.
The overall AL rate was 12.3 % (19/154). In univariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.001), operative time (P = 0.049), intraoperative bleeding (P = 0.037), lateral lymph node dissection (P = 0.009), multiple firings of the linear stapler (P = 0.041), and precompression before stapler firings (P = 0.008) were significantly associated with AL. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size (odds ratio [OR] 4.01; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.25–12.89; P = 0.02) and precompression before stapler firings (OR 4.58; CI 1.22–17.20; P = 0.024) as independent risk factors for AL. In particular, precompression before stapler firing tended to reduce the AL occurring in early postoperative period.
Using appropriate techniques, laparoscopic LAR with DST anastomosis can be performed safely without increasing the risk of AL. Important risk factors for AL were tumor size and precompression before stapler firings.
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