Coffee Consumption and Risk of Stroke in Women

Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
Stroke (Impact Factor: 6.02). 03/2011; 42(4):908-12. DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.603787
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coffee consumption has been inconsistently associated with stroke incidence and mortality in previous studies. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and stroke incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.
We prospectively followed of 34,670 women without a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1997. Coffee consumption was assessed in 1997 using a self-administered questionnaire. Incident stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, we ascertained 1680 stroke events, including 1310 cerebral infarctions, 154 intracerebral hemorrhages, 79 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 137 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, coffee consumption was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of total stroke, cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage but not intracerebral hemorrhage. The multivariable relative risks of total stroke across categories of coffee consumption (<1 cup/day, 1 to 2 cups/day, 3 to 4 cups/day, and ≥5 cups/day) were 1.00, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88), and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.92, respectively; P for trend=0.02). The association between coffee consumption and cerebral infarction was not modified by smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes or hypertension, or alcohol consumption.
These findings suggest that low or no coffee consumption is associated with an increased risk of stroke in women.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.
    Mediators of Inflammation 08/2014; 2014:805198. DOI:10.1155/2014/805198 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2014; 144(12):1952-5. DOI:10.3945/jn.114.200634 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coffee is the second most universally consumed liquid substances, second to water (Linskog et al., 2002). There are many studies with positive findings that shows coffee is beneficial to human health. Coffee affects the body in many different ways and the most obvious affect is that being an energy boost, which became the main reason why people drink it. Coffee is rich in antioxidants, such as 'chlorogenic acid' and 'melanoidins'. Antioxidants help prevent oxidation, a process that causes damage to cells and contributes to aging. Regular coffee drinking also reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease. Saaksjarvi et al. (2008) and Hu et al. (2007) have demonstrated that people who drink coffee on a regular basis are significantly less likely to develop Parkinson's disease. Meanwhile, Shino et al. (2010) revealed that coffee consumption exerted a protective effect against type 2 diabetes. vanDam et al. (2006) also found that moderate consumption of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle aged women. Coffee drinking may also protect against liver diseases, especially liver cirrhosis. A Japanese study (Inoue et al., 2005) found that those who drank coffee daily, or close to it, had about half the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a type of liver cancer. There is some evidence from Leitzmann et al. (2002) that coffee drinking may be protective against gallstone formation (known as 'cholelithiasis') in both men and women. In addition, coffee consumption lowers the risk of kidney stone formation where coffee increases the urine volume, preventing the crystallization of calcium oxalate, which is the most common component of kidney stones. Coffee consumption may also associate with decreased risk of kidney cancer (Lee et al., 2007a). Coffee can also improve mental performance. Caffeine in coffee is a well-known stimulant where it can promotes alertness, attention and wakefulness. Regular coffee drinking may help to protect against Alzheimer's disease. A study by Cao et al. (2011) revealed that a yet unidentified mystery ingredient in coffee interacts with the caffeine to help protection from Alzheimer's disease. A study by Arendash et al. (2006) in mice showed that caffeine equivalent to 5 cups of coffee per day reduced the build-up of destructive plaques in the brain. For people with asthma, caffeine can also open airways and improve asthma symptoms due the relationship between caffeine and theophylline, an old asthmatic medication. Furthermore, a large study by Wilson et al. (2011) of nearly 50,000 men found that men who drank 6 cups of coffee per day had 60% lower risk of lethal prostate cancer and those who drank 3 cups per day had 30% lower risk. Lee et al. (2007b) also suggested that coffee consumption may lower colon cancer risk among women and a study by Nettleton et al. (2010) revealed a beneficial effect of coffee on the pulmonary function of non-smokers. Women who drank more than 1 cup of coffee per day also had about 25% lower risk of stroke than women who drank less (Larrson et al., 2010). Meanwhile, a study by Garcia et al. (2009) found that women who drank 4 or more cups of coffee per day reduced their stroke risk by 20%. From a study by Jaquet et al. (2009) showed that coffee produced an increase in the metabolic activity and numbers of Bifidobacterium, which are beneficial bacteria in the gut.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014