Dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer.
ABSTRACT Macronutrients such as fat and fiber have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.
To investigate these associations, the authors analyzed data from the Nurses' Health Study. From 1980 to 2006, 669 invasive adenocarcinoma cases were identified over 1.3 million person-years of follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed in 1980 and updated every 2-4 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs), controlling for total energy and other risk factors.
Overall, the authors found no significant associations between most dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk. Total fat was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk (top vs. bottom quintile RR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.60-0.99; P(trend) = 0.18). Findings for animal fat were similar. No inverse associations between dietary fibers and cancer risk were observed. Cereal fiber was modestly positively associated with risk (top vs. bottom quintile RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.07-1.79; P(trend) = 0.05). The inverse association with animal fat intake and a positive association with carbohydrate intake were observed among premenopausal but not among postmenopausal women.
In this large prospective study, no overall association was observed between dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrates with endometrial cancer risk, although several of the relationships may vary by menopausal status.
Dietary fat and fiber intake do not seem to play a major role in endometrial cancer etiology overall. However, further evaluation of these associations, particularly in premenopausal women, is needed.
Article: Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High-glycaemic-load diets may increase endometrial cancer risk by increasing circulating insulin levels and, as a consequence, circulating oestrogen levels. Given the paucity of epidemiological data regarding the relationship between dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load and endometrial cancer risk, we sought to examine these associations using data from a prospective cohort study. We examined the association between dietary glycaemic load and endometrial cancer risk in a cohort of 49,613 Canadian women aged between 40 and 59 years at baseline who completed self-administered food-frequency questionnaires between 1982 and 1985. Linkages to national mortality and cancer databases yielded data on deaths and cancer incidence, with follow-up ending between 1998 and 2000. During a mean of 16.4 years of follow-up, we observed 426 incident cases of endometrial cancer. Hazard ratios for the highest versus the lowest quartile level of overall glycaemic index and glycaemic load were 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.90-2.41; P for trend = 0.14) and 1.36 (95% CI = 1.01-1.84; P for trend = 0.21), respectively. No association was observed between total carbohydrate or total sugar consumption and endometrial cancer risk. Among obese women (body mass index >30 kg m(-2)) the hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quartile level of glycaemic load was 1.88 (95% CI = 1.08-3.29; P for trend = 0.54) and there was a 55% increased risk for the highest versus the lowest quartile level of glycaemic load among premenopausal women. There was also evidence to support a positive association between glycaemic load and endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women who had used hormone replacement therapy. Our data suggest that diets with high glycaemic index or high glycaemic load may be associated with endometrial cancer risk overall, and particularly among obese women, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women who use hormone replacement therapy.Public Health Nutrition 11/2005; 8(7):912-9. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Daily diet factors that could potentially be related to endometrial cancer (EC) in Mexico are still unknown. This study aims to evaluate the association between EC and Mexican dietary factors. A case-control study in Mexico City was conducted during 1995-1997 in a social security hospital, using 85 incident cases of EC and 629 controls. A validated questionnaire with 116 items about the frequency and type of food intake was used. The analysis of nutrients was performed using the residual method, adjusting by predictor variables through logistic regression methods. In addition, partitional models estimated total caloric intake for other sources. We found no association between EC risk and consumption of animal or vegetable proteins, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fat, although high intake of nutrients such as lactose (odds ratio [OR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-1.01, P for trend = 0.004), vitamin D (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.82, P= 0.003), and calcium (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17-0.89, P= 0.02) were inversely associated with EC. Our results suggest that dietary vitamin D and calcium play an important role in the development of EC, although the mechanisms postulated should be explained with additional studies with large populations.International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 09/2005; 15(5):938-45. · 1.65 Impact Factor