Complex sleep apnoea in congestive heart failure
ABSTRACT Sleep disordered breathing is common and of prognostic significance in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Complex sleep apnoea (complexSA) is defined as the emergence of central sleep apnoea during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictors for complexSA in patients with CHF with OSA, and to assess the effects of treatment with adaptive servoventilation.
192 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥2) and OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15) were investigated using echocardiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, measurement of hyperoxic, hypercapnic ventilatory response, 6 min walk test and measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) prior to CPAP introduction. If patients demonstrated complexSA (AHI >15/h with <10% obstructive events) during CPAP titration, adaptive servoventilation was introduced and the investigations were repeated at 3 monthly follow-up visits.
ComplexSA developed in 34 patients (18%) during CPAP titration. After adjustment for demographic and cardiac parameters, measures of CO(2) sensitivity (higher hyperoxic, hypercapnic ventilatory response) were independently associated with complexSA. Patients using adaptive servoventilation had improved AHI, NYHA class, NT-proBNP concentration, LVEF, hyperoxic, hypercapnic ventilatory response, oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing and the relationship between minute ventilation and the rate of CO(2) elimination (VE/Vco(2) slope) at last individual follow-up (14±4 months).
There is a high prevalence of complexSA in patients with OSA and CHF, and those who develop complexSA have evidence of higher respiratory controller gain before application of CPAP. Treatment with adaptive servoventilation effectively suppressed complexSA and had positive effects on cardiac function and respiratory stability.
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ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in heart failure patients across the range of ejection fractions and is associated with adverse prognosis. Although effective pharmacologic and device-based treatment of heart failure may reduce the frequency or severity of SDB, heart failure treatment alone may not be adequate to restore normal breathing during sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the major treatment for SDB in heart failure, especially if obstructive rather than central sleep apnea (CSA) predominates. Adequate suppression of CSA by PAP is associated with a heart transplant-free survival benefit, although randomized trials are ongoing. Bilevel PAP (BPAP) may be as effective as CPAP in treating SDB and may be preferable over CPAP in patients who experience expiratory pressure discomfort. Adaptive (or auto) servo-ventilation (ASV), which adjusts the PAP depending on the patient's airflow or tidal volume, may be useful in congestive heart failure patients if CPAP is ineffective. Other therapies that have been proposed for SDB in congestive heart failure include nocturnal oxygen, CO(2) administration (by adding dead space), theophylline, and acetazolamide; most of which have not been systematically studied in outcome-based prospective randomized trials.Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 09/2011; 13(6):506-16. DOI:10.1007/s11936-011-0145-6
- Sleep 01/2012; 35(9):1197-8; author reply 1199. DOI:10.5665/sleep.2066 · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) is often used to treat central sleep apnea (CSA) and complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS). Both CompSAS and CSA may occur in the setting of CHF and with the use of chronic opioids. We hypothesized that ASV would be less successful in treatment of CSA and CompSAS secondary to opioid use than in CHF patients. Consecutive patients were studied between January and December 2009 who underwent ASV titration for CSA or CompSAS due to CHF (defined as EF < 45%, or > 50% with evidence for diastolic dysfunction on echocardiogram) and chronic opioid users (defined by the use of opioids > 6 months). Study included one hundred and eight patients with 77 males (71.3%) and 31 females (28.7%). Subjects had severe sleep apnea at baseline (AHI 45.6 ± 27.4) and inadequate control of sleep disordered breathing on CPAP (AHI 50.0 ± 32.2, CAI 36.6 ± 32). No significant differences were found between the groups in overall ASV success, defined as AHI < 10/h (p = 0.236). ASV was successful in 28 (59.6%) of those in the opioid group, compared to 43 (70.5%) of those in the CHF group. When ASV success was defined as AHI < 5/h at optimum EEP, there was again no significant difference between the groups (p-value = 0.812). Logistic regression showed unit increases in BMI, unit increases in HCO(3), and presence of CSR were each associated with decreased likelihood of ASV success. We did not find a statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of ASV between CHF patients and chronic opioid users, with the overall success rate approaching 70%, as defined by an AHI < 10/h. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 577. CITATION: Ramar K; Ramar P; Morgenthaler TI. Adaptive servoventilation in patients with central or complex sleep apnea related to chronic opioid use and congestive heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):569-576.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2012; 8(5):569-76. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.2160 · 2.83 Impact Factor