The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes trial: design, intermediate term results and future direction.
ABSTRACT The Radial Artery Patency and Clinical Outcomes Study (RAPCO) was devised and implemented in Melbourne in order to establish the appropriate place of the radial artery in the hierarchy of conduits available to the modern coronary bypass surgeon. Designed as a biological comparison with minimisation of other confounding variables, it compares this free arterial graft with the right internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein, with all conduits used in an identical fashion in two parallel cohorts of different age ranges. Enrolment was completed in 2004 and 10-year follow-up is in progress, with mean duration of about seven years at present. The midterm clinical and angiographic results to date are reviewed here, but definitive conclusions will not be possible until full completion angiographic data is available. The trial data provides a number of potential substudies of conduits, risk factors for failure and the natural history of treated coronary disease.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Currently, saphenous vein (SV) and radial artery (RA) are the most commonly used conduits in combination with the left internal mammary artery for conventional coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The present meta-analysis aimed to assess the existing evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the angiographic outcomes of these two conduits at mid-term follow-up. Four relevant and updated RCTs with follow-up beyond 3 years were identified using five electronic databases. Angiographic endpoints included complete occlusion, 'string sign', graft failure and complete patency. The incidence of complete occlusion was significantly lower after using RA compared to SV [6.7% vs. 17.2%; odd ratio (OR), 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.23-0.58; P<0.0001]. The angiographic 'string sign' was significantly more likely to be identified after using RA compared to SV (3.1% vs. 0%; OR, 5.65; 95% CI, 1.21-26.39; P=0.03). Graft failure was significantly lower after RA compared to SV (9.6% vs. 18.8%; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.72; P=0.0005). Complete graft patency was found to be significantly higher after RA compared to SV (88.6% vs. 75.8%; OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.42-7.16; P=0.005). Results of the present meta-analysis suggest that selected patients with severe, proximal stenosis may have superior angiographic outcomes at mid-term follow-up after using RA compared to SV for CABG. However, RA is associated with a significantly higher incidence of the 'string sign'. Future studies should aim to collect additional data on symptomatic outcomes.Annals of cardiothoracic surgery. 07/2013; 2(4):401-7.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the one of the most effective revascularization strategies for patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Total arterial revascularization using one or both internal thoracic and radial arteries has been shown to improve early outcomes and reduce long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Although CABG has evolved from an experimental procedure in the early 1900's to become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, there is still significant variation in grafting strategies amongst surgeons. We review the history and development of CABG with a particular emphasis on the early pioneers and the evolution of arterial grafting.Annals of cardiothoracic surgery. 07/2013; 2(4):419-26.