The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components A Meta-Analysis of 50 Studies and 534,906 Individuals

Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 03/2011; 57(11):1299-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.073
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to meta-analyze epidemiological studies and clinical trials that have assessed the effect of a Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as its components.
The Mediterranean diet has long been associated with low cardiovascular disease risk in adult population.
The authors conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, including English-language publications in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until April 30, 2010; 50 original research studies (35 clinical trials, 2 prospective and 13 cross-sectional), with 534,906 participants, were included in the analysis.
The combined effect of prospective studies and clinical trials showed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of MS (log hazard ratio: -0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.24 to -1.16). Additionally, results from clinical studies (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed the protective role of the Mediterranean diet on components of MS, like waist circumference (-0.42 cm, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.02), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.17 mg/dl, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.96), triglycerides (-6.14 mg/dl, 95% CI: -10.35 to -1.93), systolic (-2.35 mm Hg, 95% CI: -3.51 to -1.18) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.58 mm Hg, 95% CI: -2.02 to -1.13), and glucose (-3.89 mg/dl, 95% CI:-5.84 to -1.95), whereas results from epidemiological studies also confirmed those of clinical trials.
These results are of considerable public health importance, because this dietary pattern can be easily adopted by all population groups and various cultures and cost-effectively serve for primary and secondary prevention of the MS and its individual components.

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    • "Mediterranean diet, especially all-cause mortality , reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer which has been shown to be related to human health, is the best known and most researched dietary pattern [27]. "
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    • "Prospective studies and randomized trials have provided consistent evidence regarding the favorable association of the adherence to the Mediterranean diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus risk and management (Abiemo et al., 2013; Esposito et al., 2009; Itsiopoulos et al., 2011; Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2008; Romaguera et al., 2011; Toobert et al., 2003). Recent meta-analysis has linked greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet with reduced risk of the metabolic syndrome and its resolution (Kastorini et al., 2011). Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was inversely associated with the development of frailty in community-dwelling older adults (Talegawkar et al., 2012) and with the incidence of hip fracture in a prospective European study (Benetou et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective.
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    • "Moreover, the dietary habits of children may influence other habits such as the time spent engaged in sedentary or physically active pursuits. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is of special interest as it has been shown to have a positive impact on health-related quality of life (Costarelli, Koretsi, & Georgitsogianni, 2013), cardiovascular disease (Domínguez et al., 2013) and metabolic syndrome (Kastorini et al., 2011) and also shows some associations with obesity, albeit these findings are more equivocal (Buckland, Bach, & Serra-Majem, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a tendency in Mediterranean countries to abandon the characteristic Mediterranean diet. This is especially apparent within younger populations. This could have negative consequences for health such as, cardiovascular diseases, obesity or metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to the Mediterranean diet within a population of school children and examine the influence of different socio-demographic factors and lifestyle habits. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 321 school children aged 11-12 from 31 schools in the city of Logroño (La Rioja). Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, level of development, aerobic fitness, lifestyle, physical activity habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. 46.7% reported high adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with low adherence being reported by 4.7% of the school children studied. Children attending state schools, immigrants and families from low-to-medium socioeconomic strata reported significantly lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = 0.039), but the results did not reveal any significant differences in terms of body composition. Correlations were found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle habits, especially level of physical activity (r = 0.38) and screen time (r = -0.18). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet differs according to the type of school attended by children, and the child´s nationality and socioeconomic status. Children who attended state schools, immigrants and those from families with a medium-to-low socio-economic status were less likely to follow healthy diets.
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