The Effect of Mediterranean Diet on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components A Meta-Analysis of 50 Studies and 534,906 Individuals

Department of Nutrition Science-Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 03/2011; 57(11):1299-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.073
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to meta-analyze epidemiological studies and clinical trials that have assessed the effect of a Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as its components.
The Mediterranean diet has long been associated with low cardiovascular disease risk in adult population.
The authors conducted a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials, including English-language publications in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until April 30, 2010; 50 original research studies (35 clinical trials, 2 prospective and 13 cross-sectional), with 534,906 participants, were included in the analysis.
The combined effect of prospective studies and clinical trials showed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of MS (log hazard ratio: -0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.24 to -1.16). Additionally, results from clinical studies (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed the protective role of the Mediterranean diet on components of MS, like waist circumference (-0.42 cm, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.02), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.17 mg/dl, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.96), triglycerides (-6.14 mg/dl, 95% CI: -10.35 to -1.93), systolic (-2.35 mm Hg, 95% CI: -3.51 to -1.18) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.58 mm Hg, 95% CI: -2.02 to -1.13), and glucose (-3.89 mg/dl, 95% CI:-5.84 to -1.95), whereas results from epidemiological studies also confirmed those of clinical trials.
These results are of considerable public health importance, because this dietary pattern can be easily adopted by all population groups and various cultures and cost-effectively serve for primary and secondary prevention of the MS and its individual components.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Food production and consumption, especially meat, are between the main sources of human pressure on the environment. This pressure is highly unsustainable in most European countries, as it affects crucial non-renewable resources, food security and human health, also. The direct cause is the huge growth of intensive animal production during the 20th century, which made animal products rather than cereals the chief protein source in most developed countries. As many people in developing Eastern countries use their growing income to follow this trend, the pressure will continue to increase. This makes it vital that people in most developed countries choose to eat smaller quantities of meat and more environmentally-friendly proteins, such as plant-based options or other novel protein sources. A change in individual behaviors and lifestyles is generally considered to be of vital importance for making the transition to a sustainable society. However, as research and practice over several decades have shown, lifestyles are generally not becoming more sustainable, nor are changes in that direction easily made. The adoption of a healthy dietary strategy is a win-win policy thanks to its benefits for both human health and environmental pollution
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Even short-term adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may benefit aspects of psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of switching to a 10-d Mediterranean-style diet on mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures. Using a crossover design, 24 women were randomly assigned to either the diet change (where they switched to a Mediterranean-style diet) or no diet change (normal diet) condition for 10 days before switching to the other condition for the same duration. Mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures of blood pressure, blood flow velocity, and arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and at the completion of the two diets (days 11 and 22). Independent of whether the Mediterranean-style diet was undertaken before or after the crossover, it was associated with significantly elevated contentment and alertness, and significantly reduced confusion. Additionally, aspects of cognition, such as memory recall, improved significantly as a result of switching to the Mediterranean-style diet. Regarding cardiovascular measures, there was a significant reduction in augmentation pressure associated with the Mediterranean-style diet intervention, but blood flow velocity through the common carotid artery did not change. This Mediterranean-style diet has the potential to enhance aspects of mood, cognition, and cardiovascular function in a young, healthy adult sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition 05/2015; 31(5):647-52. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.10.008 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered a model for healthy eating. However, prospective evidence in Turkey evaluating the relationship between MD and cardiovascular events is scarce. We surveyed the adherence of Alanya population to MD and its association with coronary heart diseases (CHD). The study population consisted of participants in Alanya, a region placed southern Turkey. Followed-up 900 participants (52 percent women) initially free of CHD during 5.1 years. The general dietary habits of study population were detected with a food frequency questionnaire. Data obtained from that questionnaire were tested with Mediterranean diet score in order to find out the relevance to Mediterranean diet. A MD score (scale 0-8) was computed reflecting high ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat; high intake of legumes, cereals, vegetables, and fruits; low intakes of meat and it's products, milk and dairy products. Scoring < 5 was defined as Low-MD consuming, while 5+ as High-MD consuming. We observed 25 incident cases of CHD. Consumption of High-MD was 21% in men and 19% in women. The risk for myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, coronary angioplasty, and any cardiovascular disease in men increased by 1.3 (P = 0.02), 1.4 (P = 0.03), 1.5 (P = 0.01), and 1.3 (P = 0.02), respectively, for each MD score decrease. In women, the risk for myocardial infarction and angioplasty increased by 1.3 (P = 0.02) and 1.5 (P = 0.01), respectively, for each MD score decrease. The risk for coronary bypass, and any cardiovascular disease in women, crude odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 1.3 but were not statistically significant. The current rate of MD in Alanya is fairly low. There is an inverse association between adherence to MD and the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CHD in initially healthy adults.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2015; 8(2):2860-6. · 1.42 Impact Factor


Available from

Similar Publications