Clinical outcomes after percutaneous revascularization versus medical management in patients with significant renal artery stenosis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, OH 44195, USA.
American heart journal (Impact Factor: 4.56). 03/2011; 161(3):622-630.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.12.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We sought to systematically evaluate whether percutaneous revascularization is associated with additional clinical benefit in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS) as compared with medical management alone.
We included randomized controlled trials that compared percutaneous revascularization in addition to medical therapy versus medical management alone in patients with RAS. Six trials with 1,208 patients were included.
At a mean follow-up of 29 months, there was no change in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 1.20 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.18 to 3.58 mm Hg) or diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -1.60 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.22 to 1.02 mm Hg) from baseline in the percutaneous revascularization arm compared with the medical management arm. There was a reduction in the mean number of antihypertensive medications (WMD = -0.26, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.13, P < .001), but not serum creatinine (WMD = -0.14 mg/dL, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.007 mg/dL), in the percutaneous revascularization arm at the end of follow-up. Percutaneous revascularization was not associated with a significant difference in all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.25), congestive heart failure (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.56-1.13), stroke (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.50-1.47), or worsening renal function (RR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.23) as compared with medical management.
In patients with RAS, percutaneous renal revascularization in addition to medical therapy may result in a lower requirement for antihypertensive medications, but not with improvements in serum creatinine or clinical outcomes, as compared with medical management over an intermediate period of follow-up. Further studies are needed to identify the appropriate patient population most likely to benefit from its use.

Download full-text


Available from: Samir Kapadia, Jun 21, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flash pulmonary edema is characteristically sudden in onset with rapid resolution once appropriate therapy has been instituted (Messerli et al., 2011). Acute increase of left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure is the usual cause of sudden decompensated cardiac failure in this patient population. Presence of bilateral renal artery stenosis or unilateral stenosis in combination with a single functional kidney in the susceptible cohort is usually blamed for this condition. We describe a patient who presented with flash pulmonary edema in the setting of normal coronary arteries. Our case is distinct as our patient developed flash pulmonary edema secondary to unilateral renal artery stenosis in the presence of bilateral functioning kidneys. Percutaneous stent implantation in the affected renal artery resulted in rapid resolution of pulmonary edema.
    02/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/659306
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renovascular hypertension (hypertension induced by renal artery stenosis) is a form of secondary hypertension caused by overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system by the ischemic kidney. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is estimated to be between 2% (unselected hypertensives) and 40% (older patients with other atherosclerotic comorbidities). Most cases of RAS are caused by atherosclerosis; other causes, including fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis, thromboembolism and aneurysms, are less frequent. The most frequent clinical presentation of RAS is hypertension. Acute kidney injury, rapid loss of kidney function and episodes of flash pulmonary edema are other symptoms of RAS, especially in bilateral disease. In current practice, RAS therapy includes antiplatelet (aspirin) and lipid-lowering (statin) therapy as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as a first choice of antihypertensive agents. Angiotensin blockade, however, is contraindicated in bilateral RAS and in RAS of the solitary kidney. This review summarizes the current status and perspectives on the epidemiology and management of renovascular hypertension.
    Journal of nephrology 09/2012; 25(6). DOI:10.5301/jn.5000206 · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Device therapy for the treatment of uncontrolled and resistant hypertension has evolved significantly over the past several decades. Both renal artery disease and sympathetic hyperactivity have been linked to resistant hypertension. This manuscript will review the current evidence base supporting device therapy (e.g., renal artery revascularization, sympathetic nervous system modulation) for resistant hypertension.
    Current Cardiology Reports 11/2014; 16(11):546. DOI:10.1007/s11886-014-0546-8