Tuberculosis among health care workers.
ABSTRACT To assess the annual risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers (HCWs), the incidence rate ratio for tuberculosis (TB) among HCWs worldwide, and the population-attributable fraction of TB to exposure of HCWs in their work settings, we reviewed the literature. Stratified pooled estimates for the LTBI rate for countries with low (<50 cases/100,000 population), intermediate (50-100/100,000 population), and high (>100/100,000 population) TB incidence were 3.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0%-4.6%), 6.9% (95% CI 3.4%-10.3%), and 8.4% (95% CI 2.7%-14.0%), respectively. For TB, estimated incident rate ratios were 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-3.6), 2.4 (95% CI 1.0-3.8), and 3.7 (95% CI 2.9-4.5), respectively. Median estimated population-attributable fraction for TB was as high as 0.4%. HCWs are at higher than average risk for TB. Sound TB infection control measures should be implemented in all health care facilities with patients suspected of having infectious TB.
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ABSTRACT: The risk of tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare personnel (HCP) is related to its incidence in the general population. Healthcare students involved in clinical training could be exposed to occupational risks similar to those that HCP face. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among undergraduate healthcare students with different working seniority in Italy was analysed.Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England). 01/2014; 9(1):34.
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ABSTRACT: Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an occupational hazard for health care workers (HCWs) who are at greater risk of developing TB than the general population. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in TB incidence among HCWs with versus without a history of working in TB wards, to estimate the incidence of TB among HCWs, and to identify risk factors for TB disease in HCWs. Methods A retrospective cohort study (January 2006 to December 2010) was conducted in three district hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were abstracted via chart review from occupational health medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Poisson multilevel mixed model. Results Of 1,313 (92%) medical charts reviewed with data on location of work documented, 112 (9%) cases of TB were identified. Among HCWs with TB 14 (13%) had multidrug-resistant TB. Thirty-six (32%) were cured, 33 (29%) completed treatment, and 13 (12%) died. An increased incidence of TB was reported for HCWs with a history of working in TB wards (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.11-3.71), pediatric wards (IRR 1.82 95% CI 1.07-3.10), outpatient departments (IRR 2.08 95% CI 1.23-3.52), and stores/workshop (IRR 2.38 95% CI 1.06-5.34) compared with those without such a history. HCWs living with HIV had a greater incidence of TB (IRR 3.2, 95% CI 1.54-6.66) than HIV-negative HCWs. TB incidence among HCWs was approximately two-fold greater than that of the general population over the study period. Conclusions HCWs working in a TB ward had an increased incidence of TB. However, a greater incidence of TB was also found in HCWs working in other wards including pediatric wards, outpatient departments and stores. We also identified a greater incidence of TB among HCWs than the general population. These findings further support the need for improved infection control measures not only in TB or drug-resistant TB wards or areas perceived to be at high-risk but also throughout hospitals to protect HCWs. Additionally, it is recommended for occupational health services to routinely screen HCWs for TB and provide HCWs with access to care for TB and HIV.BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14:891. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test for active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV adults, and its variation over time in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and/or isoniazide preventive therapy (IPT).PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e107245. · 3.53 Impact Factor