Tuberculosis among Health Care Workers
ABSTRACT To assess the annual risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers (HCWs), the incidence rate ratio for tuberculosis (TB) among HCWs worldwide, and the population-attributable fraction of TB to exposure of HCWs in their work settings, we reviewed the literature. Stratified pooled estimates for the LTBI rate for countries with low (<50 cases/100,000 population), intermediate (50-100/100,000 population), and high (>100/100,000 population) TB incidence were 3.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0%-4.6%), 6.9% (95% CI 3.4%-10.3%), and 8.4% (95% CI 2.7%-14.0%), respectively. For TB, estimated incident rate ratios were 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-3.6), 2.4 (95% CI 1.0-3.8), and 3.7 (95% CI 2.9-4.5), respectively. Median estimated population-attributable fraction for TB was as high as 0.4%. HCWs are at higher than average risk for TB. Sound TB infection control measures should be implemented in all health care facilities with patients suspected of having infectious TB.
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ABSTRACT: The surveillance of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in both healthcare workers and healthcare students is considered fundamental for tuberculosis (TB) prevention. The aim of the present study was to estimate LTBI prevalence and evaluate potential risk-factors associated with this condition in a large cohort of medical students in Italy. In a cross-sectional study, performed between March and December 2012, 1511 eligible subjects attending the Medical School of the University of Genoa, trained at the IRCCS San Martino-IST Teaching Hospital of Genoa, were actively called to undergo the tuberculin skin test (TST). All the TST positive cases were confirmed with an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). A standardized questionnaire was collected for multivariate risk analysis. A total of 1302 (86.2%) students underwent TST testing and completed the questionnaire. Eleven subjects (0.8%) resulted TST positive and LTBI diagnosis was confirmed in 2 (0.1%) cases. Professional exposure to active TB patients (OR 21.7, 95% CI 2.9–160.2; p value 0.003) and previous BCG immunization (OR 28.3, 95% CI 3.0–265.1; p value 0.003) are independently associated with TST positivity. Despite the low prevalence of LTBI among Italian medicalstudents, an occupational risk of TB infection still exists in countries with low circulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.BioMed Research International 02/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/746895 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in resource-limited facilities where TB infection control (IC) is poorly implemented. Theory-based behavioral models can potentially improve IC practices. The present study used an anonymous questionnaire to assess healthcare worker (HCW) TB IC information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) and implementation in two resource-limited rural South African hospitals with prevalent drug-resistant TB. Between June and August 2010, 198 surveys were completed. Although the respondents demonstrated information proficiency and positive motivation, 22.8% did not consider TB IC to be worthwhile. Most tasks were rated as easy by survey participants, but responding HCWs highlighted challenges in discrete behavioral skills. The majority of responding HCWs reported that they always wore respirators (54.3%), instructed patients on cough hygiene (63.0%), and ensured natural ventilation (67.4%) in high-risk areas. Most respondents (74.0%) knew their HIV status. Social support items correlated with the implementation of the first three aforementioned practices but not with the respondents' knowledge of their HIV status. In most cases, motivation and behavioral skills, but not information, were associated with implementation. HCWs in rural South African hospitals with high drug-resistance demonstrated moderate IMB and implementation of TB IC. Improvement efforts should emphasize the development of HCW motivation and behavioral skills as well as social support from colleagues and supervisors. Such interventions should be informed by baseline IMB assessments. In the present study, a trimmed/modified IMB model helped characterize TB IC implementation.03/2012; 5(1):67-81. DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2011.10.008
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ABSTRACT: Background: Aim of the study was to document the baseline prevalence of healthcare students positive to tuberculosis skin tests screening. Methods: Between 2008-2010, students admitted to healthcare courses (medicine, nursing, physiotherapy...) at Sapienza university in Rome were requested to carry out personal tuberculosis skin test screening in their local district or town healthcare centers according to the italian guidelines. At the time interferongamma release assays (IGRA) testing was not adopted for large screening. Demographic characteristics, tuberculosis screening results, healthcare course, tuberculosis vaccination status were recorded. Results: A cohort of 2,500 university healthcare students were screened by several Italian Hygiene Offices using tuberculin skin test and Tine test. Overall 131 (5.2%) healthcare students resulted positive to some tuberculosis skin test screening. Tuberculin skin test was carried out on 2,029 students (81.2%) and conversion was observed in 107 (5.3%), whereas Tine test was carried out on 498 students (19.9%) and positive result was observed in 24 (4.8%). The Tine test use and non optimal (<72h) recording of the forearm induration in tuberculin skin tests was related mostly to some healthcare centers in Lazio and Campania regions. Previous BCG vaccination was reported by 27 healthcare students (1.1%), and only two of them showed tuberculin skin test conversion, whereas the large majority 105 (98.1%) of Mantoux positives had not been vaccinated. In univariate analysis positive tuberculin skin test was associated to growing students age (29.2 ± 10.3 vs. 23.1 ± 6.0; p<0.01). Positive tuberculin skin test was recorded in 25 (20.3%) foreign and 82 (4.3%) italian students showing a higher risk for International students (RR 4.72; 95%CI 3.14 - 7.11; p<0.01). There was no significant correlation between the different Italian regions, the various healthcare courses or gender. Conclusion: The study evaluated the baseline positive skin test rate for tuberculosis among healthcare students in their first university year, showing a higher risk for the international group and revealed some problematic screening practices which need to be improved in the future screening programs.Annali di igiene: medicina preventiva e di comunità 25(4):311-315.