Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Tract Infections, Eastern Asia

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2011; 17(3):343-9. DOI: 10.3201/eid1703.100604
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To characterize the distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species isolated from pulmonary samples from persons in Asia and their association with pulmonary infections, we reviewed the literature. Mycobacterium avium complex bacteria were most frequently isolated (13%-81%) and were the most common cause of pulmonary NTM disease (43%-81%). Also pathogenic were rapidly growing mycobacteria (M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. abscessus). Among all NTM isolated from pulmonary samples, 31% (582/1,744) were considered clinically relevant according to American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria. Most patients were male (79%) and had a history of tuberculosis (37%). In Asia, high prevalence of rapidly growing mycobacteria and a history of tuberculosis are distinct characteristics of pulmonary NTM disease. This geographic variation is not well reflected in the American Thoracic Society criteria for NTM infections and could be incorporated in future guidelines.

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    • "Please cite this article as: Senoputra MA, et al, Diagnostic value of antibody responses to multiple antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in active and latent tuberculosis..., Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis (2015), on the size of the study, it is necessary to confirm our findings in a larger scale study. The most common cause of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is MAC infection (Simons et al., 2011), and cases of MAC coinfection in TB patients are occasionally reported (Maiga et al., 2012; Siddiqi et al., 2012c). In addition, cross-reactivity for TDM antibodies has been reported in MAC and TB infections (Fujita et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the antibody responses to 10 prospective Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens and evaluated their ability to discriminate between latent (LTBI) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Our results indicate that plasma levels of anti-α-crystallin (ACR), antilipoarabinomannan, anti-trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, and anti-tubercular-glycolipid antigen antibodies were higher in patients with active TB, compared to those in the LTBI and control subjects. No differences in the antibodies were observed between the control and LTBI subjects. Antibodies against the glycolipid antigens could not distinguish between Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-negative TB patients and MAC-infected LTBI individuals. The most useful serological marker was antibodies to ACR, with MAC-negative TB patients having higher titers than those observed in MAC-positive LTBI and control subjects. Our data indicate that antibody to ACR is a promising target for the serological diagnosis of patients with active TB patients. When dealing with antiglycolipid antibodies, MAC coinfection should always be considered in serological studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 07/2015; 83(3). DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.07.021 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    • "Lung diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasing worldwide [1] [2] [3]. In China, a region with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden [4], the rates of NTM can be classified as an epidemic, as demonstrated in the national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2010, which revealed that the proportion of NTM among all mycobacterial isolates had increased from 11.1% to 22.9% [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in risk factors and drug susceptibility between Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare lung diseases in China. In total, 452 nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains isolated from patients with NTM lung diseases in four specialised TB hospitals were enrolled in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to evaluate the drug susceptibility of M. avium and M. intracellulare isolates. In addition, demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with NTM lung diseases caused by M. avium and M. intracellulare were analysed. Of 452 NTM isolates, M. intracellulare (188; 41.6%) was the most frequently isolated organism. The percentages of moxifloxacin- and linezolid-resistant strains among the M. intracellulare isolates were significantly lower than those among the M. avium group (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). In contrast, M. avium harboured a lower proportion of rifampicin-resistant strains than M. intracellulare (P=0.005). Among patients with M. intracellulare lung diseases, the percentages of patients aged >64 years and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were significantly higher than among patients with M. avium (P=0.008 for age and P=0.001 for COPD). In conclusion, these data demonstrated that M. intracellulare was the most common NTM species in China. This study also revealed that M. intracellulare and M. avium differed in their drug susceptibility profiles. In addition, clinical cases of M. intracellulare lung diseases were more likely to be found in the aged population and among patients with COPD co-morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 03/2015; 45(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2015.01.012 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    • "abscessus complex (n = 11, 13Á9%). These results were similar to the results of identified MAC (67%) from other studies (Simons et al. 2011). In addition, Myc. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of REBA Myco-ID(®) assay based on the principle of reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the differentiation of MTB from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and the identification of NTM species in liquid cultures. Methods and results: A total of 274 mycobacterial liquid cultures that cultured from respiratory specimens including 94 acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positives and 180 AFB smear negatives were used in this study. The results of PCR-REBA were compared with those of real-time PCR and PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays. Sensitivity of 195 MTB and 79 NTM strains determined using DNA isolated from liquid cultures was 100% and 97·5%, respectively. However, two of the liquid culture NTM specimens were not detected by PCR-REBA and were identified as Rhodococcus jostii and R. erythropolis by PRA Myco-ID and rpoB gene sequence analysis. Frequently identified NTM species in the liquid cultures were Mycobacterium avium complex (n = 50, 63·3%) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (n = 11, 13·9%). The PCR-REBA is able to identify mycobacterial strains more rapidly than conventional tests and does not require specialized instruments and is possible to differentiate between Myc. abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense strains. Conclusions: PCR-REBA assay showed rapid, highly sensitive and specific results for the identification of MTB and NTM and discriminated between NTM species from mycobacterial liquid cultures. Significance and impact of the study: Even though the use of molecular diagnostic technologies is more expensive than the use of conventional methods, the clinical and economic benefit of saving time in regard to expenses remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the PCR-REBA may provide the essential information to accelerate therapeutic decisions for appropriate antibiotic treatments in the acute phase of mycobacterial diseases.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 10/2014; 118(1). DOI:10.1111/jam.12670 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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