Kubas-type hydrogen storage in V(III) polymers using tri- and tetradentate bridging ligands.
ABSTRACT Oxalic acid, oxamide, glycolic acid, and glycolamide were employed as 2-carbon linkers to synthesize a series of one-dimensional V(III) polymers from trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF containing a high concentration of low-valent metal sites that can be exploited for Kubas binding in hydrogen storage. Synthesized materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. Because each of these organic linkers possesses a different number of protons and coordinating atoms, the products in each case were expected to have different stoichiometries with respect to the number of mesityl groups eliminated and also a different geometry about the V(III) centers. For example, the oxalate and glycolate polymers contained residual mesityl groups; however, these could be exchanged with hydride via hydrogenolysis. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded on the product of trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF with oxamide (3.49 wt % at 77 K and 85 bar). As suggested by the high enthalpy of adsorption (17.9 kJ/mol H(2)), a substantial degree of performance of the vanadium metal centers was retained at room temperature (25%), corresponding to a gravimetric adsorption of 0.87 wt % at 85 bar, close to the performance of MOF-177 at this temperature and pressure. This is remarkable given the BET surface area of this material is only 9 m(2)/g. A calculation on the basis of thermogravimetric results provides 0.88 hydrogen molecule per vanadium center under these conditions. Raman studies with H(2) and D(2) showed the first unequivocal evidence for Kubas binding on a framework metal in an extended solid, and IR studies demonstrated H(D) exchange of the vanadium hydride with coordinated D(2). These spectroscopic observations are sufficient to assign the rising trends in isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption observed previously by our group in several classes of materials containing low-valent transition metals to the Kubas interaction.
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ABSTRACT: Our established method of modeling transition metal based H2 storage materials is extended to include the desirable and achievable targets of hydrazine linked Cu(I), Cu(II) and Ni(II). Two coordinate Cu(I) H2 binding site representations bind two H2 molecules through the reversible Kubas interaction with a theoretical maximum storage capacity of 4.27%wt.Energy Procedia 29:585–593.
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ABSTRACT: Lithium ions in LiFePO(4) were observed directly at atomic resolution by an aberration-corrected annular-bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy technique. In addition, it was found in partially delithiated LiFePO(4) that the remaining lithium ions preferably occupy every second layer, along the b axis, analogously to the staging phenomenon observed in some layered intercalation compounds. This new finding challenges previously proposed LiFePO(4)/FePO(4) two-phase separation mechanisms.Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2011; 133(13):4661-3. · 10.68 Impact Factor