Article

Update on the evaluation and management of functional dyspepsia.

Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, 77802, USA.
American family physician (Impact Factor: 1.82). 03/2011; 83(5):547-52.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dyspepsia affects up to 40 percent of adults each year and is often diagnosed as functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. The defining symptoms are postprandial fullness, early satiation, or epigastric pain or burning in the absence of causative structural disease. These symptoms may coexist with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as anxiety and depression. The history and physical examination can help identify other possible causes of the symptoms. Warning signs of serious disease, such as cancer, are unintended weight loss, progressive dysphagia, persistent vomiting, evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding, and a family history of cancer. In these cases, more extensive laboratory investigation, imaging, and endoscopy should be considered as clinically indicated. During the initial evaluation, a test-and-treat strategy to identify and eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection is more effective than empiric treatment and more cost-effective than initial endoscopy. Eradication of H. pylori helps one out of 15 patients with functional dyspepsia diagnosed by endoscopy, but may not be cost-effective. Treatment options that may be beneficial for functional dyspepsia include histamine H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and prokinetic agents. Although psychotropic medications and psychological interventions have no proven benefit in patients with functional dyspepsia, they are appropriate for treating common psychiatric comorbidities.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Dyspepsia is one of the major indications for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Other indications include dysphagia, odynophagia and gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy is an expensive procedure that is out of reach of many patients in resource constrained region such as western Kenya. We reviewed endoscopy records from both public and private health institutions spanning ten years. Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy diagnoses in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, private hospitals and private clinics in Eldoret, Kenya Subjects: One thousand six hundred and ninety (1690) Patients who underwent upper GI endoscopy from 1993 to 2003 were reviewed after obtaining clearances from the respective institutions. Information on age, sex, symptoms, and endoscopy diagnosis were extracted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The most common symptom was dyspepsia in 1059 (62.7%) followed by dysphagia in 224 (13.3%). Others were referred with diagnosis of cancer of the stomach or oesophagus. Common endoscopy diagnoses were cancer of the oesophagus in 199 (11.8%) and duodenal ulcer in 186 (11.0%). The majority of the patients (30.4%) had normal endoscopy findings. Of the 1059 patients with dyspepsia, only 154 (14.5%) had duodenal ulcer and 34 (3.2%) had gastric ulcers, the majority, 37.2% had normal endoscopy findings. Conclusion: Dyspepsia was main reason for referral, but the majority of such patients had normal findings. Cancer of the oesophagus was the main diagnosis in patients with dysphagia. In view of the cost of endoscopy, only those with dyspepsia and alarm symptoms be referred for the procedure.
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