The changing prevalence of the autism spectrum disorders

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, GA, USA.
American family physician (Impact Factor: 2.18). 03/2011; 83(5):515-20.
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Catherine E Rice,
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    • "16, No. 4, 343–355, Fombonne, 2009; Rice, 2011 "
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we describe the development and content of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI). VIPP-AUTI is an adapted version of the evidence-based intervention VIPP. The lack of social responsiveness in children with autism often lowers the quality of the parent-child interaction. A wide range of early interventions exist to cope with the disorder. The majority of early interventions for children with autism focus on their deficits of (social) skills, but the number of evidence-based interventions to improve early parent-child interaction patterns is limited. The aim of VIPP-AUTI is to enhance parental sensitivity to children's autistic characteristics, in order to improve child developmental outcome by increased parental support.
    Attachment & Human Development 08/2014; 16(4):343-55. DOI:10.1080/14616734.2014.912487 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent condition in the U.S. with core deficits in the unique domain of human social behaviors (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Hansen et al., 2008; Rice, 2011). Individuals with high functioning ASD show deficits primarily in social and communicative skills such as imitation, empathy, and shared attention, as well as restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show deficits in social and communicative skills, including imitation, empathy, and shared attention, as well as restricted interests and repetitive patterns of behaviors. Evidence for and against the idea that dysfunctions in the mirror neuron system are involved in imitation and could be one underlying cause for ASD is discussed in this review. Neurofeedback interventions have reduced symptoms in children with ASD by self-regulation of brain rhythms. However, cortical deficiencies are not the only cause of these symptoms. Peripheral physiological activity, such as the heart rate and its variability, is closely linked to neurophysiological signals and associated with social engagement. Therefore, a combined approach targeting the interplay between brain, body, and behavior could be more effective. Brain-computer interface applications for combined neurofeedback and biofeedback treatment for children with ASD are currently nonexistent. To facilitate their use, we have designed an innovative game that includes social interactions and provides neural- and body-based feedback that corresponds directly to the underlying significance of the trained signals as well as to the behavior that is reinforced.
    Frontiers in Neuroengineering 07/2014; 7:21. DOI:10.3389/fneng.2014.00021
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    • "Among the many incompatible observations about aspects of the development, anatomy, and functionality of the autistic brain, it is widely agreed that autism is a disorder of connectivity [2] [3]. Epidemiological studies show that ASD prevalence rates have been increasing in recent years, with current CDC reports indicating an average rate of about 1% (1/110), with increases of 8–17% per year [4]. While only 68% of the increase can be attributed to increased awareness and updated diagnostic criteria, the remaining 32% of cases represent a real increase in prevalence [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism is a highly varied developmental disorder typically characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction, difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although a wide range of behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative medicine strategies have been reported to ameliorate specific symptoms for some individuals, there is at present no cure for the condition. Nonetheless, among the many incompatible observations about aspects of the development, anatomy, and functionality of the autistic brain, it is widely agreed that it is characterized by widespread aberrant connectivity. Such disordered connectivity, be it increased, decreased, or otherwise compromised, may complicate healthy synchronization and communication among and within different neural circuits, thereby producing abnormal processing of sensory inputs necessary for normal social life. It is widely accepted that the innate properties of brain electrical activity produce pacemaker elements and linked networks that oscillate synchronously or asynchronously, likely reflecting a type of functional connectivity. Using phase coherence in multiple frequency EEG bands as a measure of functional connectivity, studies have shown evidence for both global hypoconnectivity and local hyperconnectivity in individuals with ASD. However, the nature of the brain's experience-dependent structural plasticity suggests that these abnormal patterns may be reversed with the proper type of treatment. Indeed, neurofeedback (NF) training, an intervention based on operant conditioning that results in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown promise in addressing marked abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. It is hypothesized that neurofeedback produces positive behavioral changes in ASD children by normalizing the aberrant connections within and between neural circuits. NF exploits the brain's plasticity to normalize aberrant connectivity patterns apparent in the autistic brain. By grounding this training in known anatomical (e.g., mirror neuron system) and functional markers (e.g., mu rhythms) of autism, NF training holds promise to support current treatments for this complex disorder. The proposed hypothesis specifically states that neurofeedback-induced alpha mu (8-12Hz) rhythm suppression or desynchronization, a marker of cortical activation, should induce neuroplastic changes and lead to normalization in relevant mirroring networks that have been associated with higher-order social cognition. []
    Medical Hypotheses 12/2012; 79(6):790-8. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.08.031 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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