Disorder-specific dysfunctions in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder during interference inhibition and attention allocation.
ABSTRACT Abnormalities in inhibitory control and underlying fronto-striatal networks is common to both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate disorder-specific abnormalities in neural networks mediating interference inhibition and selective attention.
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation of boys with ADHD (18), with OCD (10), and healthy boys during (20) during a Simon task that measures interference inhibition and controls for and therefore comeasures attention allocation.
During interference inhibition, both patient groups shared mesial frontal dysfunction compared to controls. Disorder-specific dysfunctions were observed in OCD patients in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the oddball condition and in ADHD patients in inferior parietal lobe during interference inhibition and in caudate and posterior cingulate during the simpler oddball condition. The decreased activation in caudate and cingulate in ADHD was furthermore negatively correlated with ADHD symptoms and positively with OCD behavioral traits.
The study shows that ADHD and OCD patients have shared but also disorder-specific brain dysfunctions during interference inhibition and attention allocation. Both disorders shared dysfunction in mesial frontal cortex. Disorder-specific dysfunctions, however, were observed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in OCD patients and in caudate, cingulate, and parietal brain regions in ADHD patients. The disorder-specific dissociation of striato-cingulate activation that was increased in OCD compared to ADHD patients, was furthermore inversely related to the symptomatology of the two disorders, and may potentially reflect differential dopamine modulation of striatal brain regions.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this narrative review, we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:419. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neuropsychiatric diseases in paediatric populations. The high comorbidity of ADHD and OCD with each other, especially of ADHD in paediatric OCD, is well described. OCD and ADHD often follow a chronic course with persistent rates of at least 40-50 %. Family studies showed high heritability in ADHD and OCD, and some genetic findings showed similar variants for both disorders of the same pathogenetic mechanisms, whereas other genetic findings may differentiate between ADHD and OCD. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest that partly similar executive functions are affected in both disorders. The deficits in the corresponding brain networks may be responsible for the perseverative, compulsive symptoms in OCD but also for the disinhibited and impulsive symptoms characterizing ADHD. This article reviews the current literature of neuroimaging, neurochemical circuitry, neuropsychological and genetic findings considering similarities as well as differences between OCD and ADHD.ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: A plethora of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that ADHD is characterized by multiple functional and structural neural network abnormalities beyond the classical fronto-striatal model, including fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and even fronto-limbic networks. There is evidence for a maturational delay in brain structure development which likely extends to brain function and structural and functional connectivity, but this needs corroboration by longitudinal imaging studies. Dysfunction of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be more pronounced relative to other pediatric disorders and is also the most consistent target of acute psychostimulant medication. Future studies are likely to focus on using neuroimaging for clinical translation such as for individual diagnostic and prognostic classification and as a neurotherapy to reverse brain function abnormalities.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 04/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor