Characterization of Genetically Targeted Neuron Types in the Zebrafish Optic Tectum

Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USA.
Frontiers in Neural Circuits (Impact Factor: 3.6). 02/2011; 5:1. DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2011.00001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The optically transparent larval zebrafish is ideally suited for in vivo analyses of neural circuitry controlling visually guided behaviors. However, there is a lack of information regarding specific cell types in the major retinorecipient brain region of the fish, the optic tectum. Here we report the characterization of three previously unidentified tectal cell types that are specifically labeled by dlx5/6 enhancer elements. In vivo laser-scanning microscopy in conjunction with ex vivo array tomography revealed that these neurons differ in their morphologies, synaptic connectivity, and neurotransmitter phenotypes. The first type is an excitatory bistratified periventricular interneuron that forms a dendritic arbor in the retinorecipient stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale (SFGS) and an axonal arbor in the stratum griseum centrale (SGC). The second type, a GABAergic non-stratified periventricular interneuron, extends a bushy arbor containing both dendrites and axons into the SGC and the deepest sublayers of the SFGS. The third type is a GABAergic periventricular projection neuron that extends a dendritic arbor into the SGC and a long axon to the torus semicircularis, medulla oblongata, and anterior hindbrain. Interestingly, the same axons form en passant synapses within the deepest neuropil layer of the tectum, the stratum album centrale. This approach revealed several novel aspects of tectal circuitry, including: (1) a glutamatergic mode of transmission from the superficial, retinorecipient neuropil layers to the deeper, output layers, (2) the presence of interneurons with mixed dendrite/axon arbors likely involved in local processing, and (3) a heretofore unknown GABAergic tectofugal projection to midbrain and hindbrain. These observations establish a framework for studying the morphological and functional differentiation of neural circuits in the zebrafish visual system.

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Available from: Estuardo Robles, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "The OT is a multilaminated region with a dense neuropil in which tectal cell dendrites are connected with both sensory afferents and tectal interneurons (Gahtan et al., 2005). This structure comprises the primary retinorecipient brain area in fish, which is responsible for visual processing in the zebrafish (McDowell et al., 2004; Robles et al., 2011). Cerebellar compartments in teleosts correspond to the mammalian vestibulocerebellar and non-vestibulocerebellar systems , participating in the control of balance and locomotion, respectively. "
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    • "The tectal neuropil is a precisely laminated structure within which the RGC axons mostly target the superficial layers (Xiao et al., 2005): the stratum opticum (SO), right beneath the basement membrane, and the stratum fibrosum et griseum superficiale (SFGS). Classical Golgi studies in adult goldfish and genetic single-cell labeling in larval zebrafish revealed that the PVNs have a single dendritic shaft that extends into the tectal neuropil, often crossing multiple layers (Vanegas et al., 1974; Meek and Schellart, 1978; Scott and Baier, 2009; Nevin et al., 2010; Robles et al., 2011). "
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    • "Or filters for large or medium-sized objects? Additional interneuron populations have been described in the visual cortex and tectum (e.g., Kerlin et al., 2010; Robles et al., 2011). It will also be worthwhile to explore if SIN and SOM mechanisms for size filtering are employed by other visual brain areas. "
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