Perinatal and early life risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 02/2011; 17(6):743-9. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i6.743
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate associations between perinatal risk factors and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and young adults.
Record linked abstracts of birth registrations, maternity, day case and inpatient admissions in a defined population of southern England. Investigation of 20 perinatal factors relating to the maternity or the birth: maternal age, Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) in the mother, maternal social class, marital status, smoking in pregnancy, ABO blood group and rhesus status, pre-eclampsia, parity, the infant's presentation at birth, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery, sex, number of babies delivered, gestational age, birthweight, head circumference, breastfeeding and Apgar scores at one and five minutes.
Maternity records were present for 180 children who subsequently developed IBD. Univariate analysis showed increased risks of CD among children of mothers with CD (P = 0.011, based on two cases of CD in both mother and child) and children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Multivariate analysis confirmed increased risks of CD among children of mothers who smoked (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.06-3.92) and for older mothers aged 35+ years (4.81, 2.32-9.98). Multivariate analysis showed that there were no significant associations between CD and 17 other perinatal risk factors investigated. It also showed that, for UC, there were no significant associations with the perinatal factors studied.
This study shows an association between CD in mother and child; and elevated risks of CD in children of older mothers and of mothers who smoked.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. It has been considered that cesarean delivery is a risk factor for the two subtypes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs): Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between cesarean delivery and the development of IBD. Material and methods. We searched the articles retrieved by PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to identify observational studies regarding the relationship between cesarean section and the development of CD and/or UC. Pooled odds ratios were calculated for each relationship. Results. Nine studies evaluated the potential association between cesarean delivery and the development of IBD and met all of our inclusion criteria. The pooled data from six included studies indicated cesarean delivery was a risk factor for CD (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.70; p = 0.003). Likewise, we observed a positive association between cesarean delivery and pediatric CD (95% CI: 1.06-1.35; p = 0.005). However, results from the four included studies for UC indicated the rate of cesarean section in UC patients was not higher than that of control subjects (95% CI: 0.87-1.32; p = 0.54). Overall, we did not observe a positive relationship between cesarean delivery and IBD (95% CI: 0.99-1.30; p = 0.08). Conclusion. Results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that cesarean delivery was associated with the risk of CD but not of UC. The total rate of cesarean delivery of IBD patients was similar with that of control subjects.
    Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 06/2014;
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    Advances in Medicine. 01/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide; however, pathogenesis is not fully understood. The global cesarean section (CS) rate is also rising, and evidence suggests that mode of delivery may influence colonization of the offspring gut microbiota, predisposing offspring to IBD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mode of delivery and risk of IBD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 05/2014; · 5.12 Impact Factor

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