IMiD immunomodulatory compounds block C/EBP translation through eIF4E down-regulation resulting in inhibition of MM
ABSTRACT Immunomodulatory derivatives of thalidomide (IMiD compounds), such as pomalidomide and lenalidomide, are highly active in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. However, the precise mechanisms of action and resistance in MM are unresolved. Here we show that IMiD compounds down-regulate CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ) resulting in abrogation of cell proliferation. Overexpression of C/EBPβ rescued MM cells from IMiD-induced inhibition of proliferation, indicating that C/EBPβ is critical in mediating antiproliferative effects. IMiD-induced decrease of C/EBPβ protein led to impaired transcription of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Down-regulation of IRF4 by lenalidomide was confirmed by longitudinal studies of bone marrow samples from 23 patients obtained before and during lenalidomide treatment using CD138⁺/IRF4⁺ double labeling. In contrast to down-regulation of C/EBPβ protein, IMiD compounds did not alter C/EBPβ mRNA levels or protein stability, suggesting translational regulation of C/EBPβ. We could demonstrate that C/EBPβ protein expression is under eIF4E-translational control in MM. Furthermore, inhibition of the eIF4E-C/EBPβ axis by IMiD compounds was not observed in IMiD-resistant MM cells. However, targeting translation at a different level by inhibiting eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 phosphorylation overcame resistance, suggesting that this pathway is critical and might be a target to overcome drug resistance.
SourceAvailable from: Lorenzo GalluzziOncoImmunology 02/2014; 3(2):e28386. DOI:10.4161/onci.28386 · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing recognition of the involvement of the immune signaling molecule, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in the pathophysiology of stroke and chronic brain dysfunction. TNF plays an important role both in modulating synaptic function and in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Etanercept is a recombinant therapeutic that neutralizes pathologic levels of TNF. Brain imaging has demonstrated chronic intracerebral microglial activation and neuroinflammation following stroke and other forms of acute brain injury. Activated microglia release TNF, which mediates neurotoxicity in the stroke penumbra. Recent observational studies have reported rapid and sustained improvement in chronic post-stroke neurological and cognitive dysfunction following perispinal administration of etanercept. The biological plausibility of these results is supported by independent evidence demonstrating reduction in cognitive dysfunction, neuropathic pain, and microglial activation following the use of etanercept, as well as multiple studies reporting improvement in stroke outcome and cognitive impairment following therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit TNF. The causal association between etanercept treatment and reduction in post-stroke disability satisfy all of the Bradford Hill Criteria: strength of the association; consistency; specificity; temporality; biological gradient; biological plausibility; coherence; experimental evidence; and analogy. Recognition that chronic microglial activation and pathologic TNF concentration are targets that may be therapeutically addressed for years following stroke and other forms of acute brain injury provides an exciting new direction for research and treatment.CNS Drugs 05/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0174-2 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the evolution of effective frontline treatment strategies, many patients with myeloma inevitably relapse. Treatment can be complicated by the interplay of disease-, treatment-, and patient-related factors. Unfortunately, many patients eventually develop disease that is refractory to lenalidomide and bortezomib and have few treatment options. Pomalidomide is a distinct IMiD® agent recently approved in the US and Europe. We review the pomalidomide mechanism of action, summarizing its direct antimyeloma, immunomodulatory, and stromal-support inhibitory activities. We also detail its clinical development, including establishment of the approved dose/schedule, phase 2 and 3 trials in relapsed and refractory patients, and novel pomalidomide-based combinations.Leukemia research 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.02.008 · 2.69 Impact Factor