Dynamic association of tau with neuronal membranes is regulated by phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Tau is an abundant cytosolic protein which regulates cytoskeletal stability by associating with microtubules in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We have found a significant proportion of tau is located in the membrane fraction of rat cortical neurons and is dephosphorylated, at least at Tau-1 (Ser199/Ser202), AT8 (Ser199/Ser202/Thr205) and PHF-1 (Ser396/Ser404) epitopes. Inhibition of tau kinases casein kinase 1 (CK1) or glycogen synthase kinase-3 decreased tau phosphorylation and significantly increased amounts of tau in the membrane fraction. Mutation of serine/threonine residues to glutamate to mimic phosphorylation in the N-terminal, but not C-terminal, region of tau prevented its membrane localization in transfected cells, demonstrating that the phosphorylation state of tau directly impacts its localization. Inhibiting CK1 in neurons lacking the tyrosine kinase fyn also induced tau dephosphorylation but did not affect its membrane association. Furthermore, inhibition of CK1 increased binding of neuronal tau to the fyn-SH3 domain. We conclude that trafficking of tau between the cytosol and the neuronal membrane is dynamically regulated by tau phosphorylation through a mechanism dependent on fyn expression.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains clinical indication with significant "unmet medical need". Innovative new therapy to eliminate residual tumor cells and prevent tumor recurrences is critically needed for this deadly disease. A major challenge of GBM research has been the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets and accurate diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Many of the current clinical therapeutic targets of immunotoxins and ligand-directed toxins for high-grade glioma (HGG) cells are surface sialylated glycoproteins. Therefore, methods that systematically and quantitatively analyze cell surface sialoglycoproteins in human clinical tumor samples would be useful for the identification of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for malignant gliomas. In this study, we used the bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy (BOCR) in combination with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS) to characterize and accurately quantify the individual cell surface sialoproteome in human GBM tissues, in fetal, adult human astrocytes, and in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified and quantified a total of 843 proteins, including 801 glycoproteins. Among the 843 proteins, 606 (72%) are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins, including 156 CD-antigens, all major classes of cell surface receptor proteins, transporters, and adhesion proteins. Our findings identified several known as well as new cell surface antigens whose expression is predominantly restricted to human GBM tumors as confirmed by microarray transcription profiling, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. This report presents the comprehensive identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant gliomas using quantitative sialoglycoproteomics with clinically relevant, patient derived primary glioma cells.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110316. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that aggregates in neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies. Recently, studies have suggested that Tau may be secreted and play a role in neural network signalling. However, once deregulated, secreted Tau may also participate in the spreading of Tau pathology in hierarchical pathways of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying neuron-to-neuron Tau transfer are still unknown; given the known role of extra-cellular vesicles in cell-to-cell communication, we wondered whether these vesicles could carry secreted Tau. We found, among vesicles, that Tau is predominately secreted in ectosomes, which are plasma membrane-originating vesicles, and when it accumulates, the exosomal pathway is activated.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100760. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that human tau can be secreted by neurons and non-neuronal cells, an event linked to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain. In the present study, we confirmed that under physiological conditions, one tau-positive band was detected in the culture medium with an anti-tau antibody recognizing total tau and the Tau-1 antibody directed against unphosphorylated tau. We then examined whether tau secretion was modified upon insults. Tau secretion was increased by starvation [Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS)], inhibition of lysosomal function (leupeptin) and when both of these conditions were superimposed, this combined treatment having the most important effects on tau secretion. Interestingly, the pattern of tau secretion was distinct from that of control neurons when neurons were treated either with EBSS alone or EBSS + leupeptin. In these conditions, three tau-positive bands were detected in the culture medium. Two of these three bands were immunoreactive to Tau-1 antibody revealing that at least two tau species were released upon these treatments. Collectively, our results indicate that insults such as nutrient deprivation and lysosomal dysfunction observed in neurodegenerative diseases could result in an increase of tau secretion and propagation of tau pathology in the brain.Scientific Reports 07/2014; 4:5715. · 5.08 Impact Factor