Readmission following hospital discharge has become an important target of quality improvement.
To describe the development, validation, and results of a risk-standardized measure of hospital readmission rates among elderly patients with pneumonia employed in federal quality measurement and efficiency initiatives.
A retrospective cohort study using hospital and outpatient Medicare claims from 2005 and 2006.
A total of 4675 hospitals in the United States.
Medicare beneficiaries aged >65 years with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia.
Hospital-specific, risk-standardized 30-day readmission rates calculated as the ratio of predicted-to-expected readmissions, multiplied by the national unadjusted rate. Comparison of the areas under the receiver operating curve (ROC) and measurement of correlation coefficient in development and validation samples.
The development sample consisted of 226,545 hospitalizations at 4675 hospitals, with an overall unadjusted 30-day readmission rate of 17.4%. The median risk-standardized hospital readmission rate was 17.3%, and the odds of readmission for a hospital one standard deviation above average was 1.4 times that of a hospital one standard deviation below average. Performance of the medical record and administrative models was similar (areas under the ROC curve 0.59 and 0.63, respectively) and the correlation coefficient of estimated state-specific standardized readmission rates from the administrative and medical record models was 0.96.
Rehospitalization within 30 days of treatment for pneumonia is common, and rates vary across hospitals. A risk-standardized measure of hospital readmission rates derived from administrative claims has similar performance characteristics to one based on medical record review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health care quality in the US territories is poorly characterized. We used process measures to compare the performance of hospitals in the US territories and in the US states.
Our sample included nonfederal hospitals located in the United States and its territories discharging Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia (PNE) (July 2005-June 2008). We compared risk-standardized 30-day mortality and readmission rates between territorial and stateside hospitals, adjusting for performance on core process measures and hospital characteristics.
In 57 territorial hospitals and 4799 stateside hospitals, hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates were significantly higher in the US territories (P<.001) for AMI (18.8% vs 16.0%), HF (12.3% vs 10.8%), and PNE (14.9% vs 11.4%). Hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) were also significantly higher in the US territories for AMI (20.6% vs 19.8%; P=.04), and PNE (19.4% vs 18.4%; P=.01) but was not significant for HF (25.5% vs 24.5%; P=.07). The higher risk-standardized mortality rates in the US territories remained statistically significant after adjusting for hospital characteristics and core process measure performance. Hospitals in the US territories had lower performance on all core process measures (P<.05).
Compared with hospitals in the US states, hospitals in the US territories have significantly higher 30-day mortality rates and lower performance on every core process measure for patients discharged after AMI, HF, and PNE. Eliminating the substantial quality gap in the US territories should be a national priority.
Archives of internal medicine 06/2011; 171(17):1528-40. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.284 · 17.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many regulatory bodies and payers measure the quality of care provided to patients admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. Some pneumonia quality measures were not based on high-level evidence, and there is also concern that public reporting of performance could drive excessive use of diagnostic testing and antibiotic treatment. There have been significant increases in the performance rate of several process of care recommended for patients hospitalized with pneumonia, accompanied by a decrease in 30-day mortality. To maximize the potential for improved patient outcomes, physicians and regulators must remain vigilant to detect unintended negative consequences related to performance measurement.
Clinics in chest medicine 09/2011; 32(3):575-89. DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2011.05.005 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient readmission within 30 days from discharge has been perceived by the Centers for Medicare and Medical Services as an indicator of poor healthcare quality for specific high-cost medical conditions. Patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are often being readmitted. Our study identified the risk factors for 30-day readmission among 618 adult recipients of myeloablative allo-HCT from 1990 to 2009. Two hundred forty-two (39%) of 618 patients (median age = 42 years [range: 18-66]) were readmitted a median of 10 days (range: 1-30) from their hospital discharge. Median duration of readmission was 8 days (range: 0-103). Infections (n = 68), fever with or without identified source of infection (n = 63), gastrointestinal complications (n = 44), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (n = 38), and other reasons (n = 29) accounted for 28%, 26%, 18%, 16%, and 12% of readmissions, respectively. During their index admission, patients who were subsequently readmitted had more documented infections (P < .001), higher hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) (P < .01), total body irridiation (TBI)-based conditioning (P < .001), unrelated donor (P < .001), and peripheral stem cell (P = .014) transplantation. In multivariable analysis, HCT-CI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.52), TBI-based preparative regimen (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.67-4.13), and infection during admission for allo-HSCT (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37-2.92) predicted 30-day readmission. Thirty-day readmission itself was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR](Adj) = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.36-2.10). Our data emphasize the importance of a risk-standardized approach to 30-day hospital readmission if it is used as a quality-of-care metric for bone marrow transplantation.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2011; 18(6):874-80. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.10.032 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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