2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation Are Usually Incorrectly Applied by Anesthesiology Residents Evaluating Simulated Patients
ABSTRACT The 2007 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Evaluation and Care for Noncardiac Surgery is the accepted standard for perioperative cardiac evaluation. Anesthesiology training programs are required to teach these algorithms. We estimated the percentage of residents nationwide who correctly applied suggested testing algorithms from the ACC/AHA guidelines when they evaluated simulated patients in common clinical scenarios.
Anesthesiology resident volunteers at 24 training programs were presented with 6 scenarios characterized by surgical procedure, patient's risk factors, and patient's functional capacity. Scenarios and 5 possible recommendations per scenario were both presented in randomized orders. Senior anesthesiologists at 24 different United States training programs along with the first author of the 2007 ACC/AHA guidelines validated the appropriate recommendation to this web-based survey before distribution.
The 548 resident participants, representing 12% of anesthesiology trainees in the United States, included 48 PGY-1s (preliminary year before anesthesia training), 166 Clinical Anesthesia Year 1 (CA-1) residents, 161 CA-2s, and 173 CA-3s. For patients with an active cardiac condition, the upper 95% confidence bound for the percent of residents who recommended evaluations consistent with the guidelines was 78%. However, for the remaining 5 scenarios, the upper 95% confidence bound for the percent of residents with an appropriate recommendation was 46%.
The results show that fewer than half of anesthesiology residents nationwide correctly demonstrate the approach considered the standard of care for preoperative cardiac evaluation. Further study is necessary to elucidate the correct intervention(s), such as use of decision support tools, increased clarity of guidelines for routine use, adjustment in educational programs, and/or greater familiarity of responsible faculty with the material.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dialogue at the interface of education and clinical practice highlights areas of critical importance to the development of new approaches for educating anesthesiologists. The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on education and acquisition of competence in three areas relevant to the interface of learning and clinical practice, with the aim to suggest a research agenda that adds to the evidence on preparing physicians for independent practice. The three areas are: 1) transitions across the continuum of education; 2) the effect of reductions in hours of clinical training on competence; and 3) efforts to incorporate the competencies and CanMEDS roles into teaching and evaluation. Fifty-six articles relevant to one or more of the themes were identified in the review, including 21 studies of transitions (in, during, and after residency education), 19 studies on the effects of duty hour limits on residents' acquisition of competence, and 16 articles that assessed competency-based teaching and assessment in anesthesiology. Overall, the findings suggested a relative paucity of scientific evidence and a need for research and the development of new scientific theory. Studies generally treated one of the themes in isolation, while in actuality they interact to produce optimal as well as suboptimal learning situations, while medical education research often is limited by small samples, brief follow-up, and threats to validity. This suggests a "research gap" where editorials and commentaries have moved ahead of an evidence base for education. Promising areas for research include preparation for care deemed important by society, work to apply knowledge about the development of expertise in other disciplines to medicine, and ways to embed the competencies in teaching and evaluation more effectively. Closing the research gap in medical education will require clear direction for future work. The starting point, at an institution or nationally, is dialogue within the specialty to achieve consensus on some of the most pressing questions.Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 12/2011; 59(2):203-12. DOI:10.1007/s12630-011-9639-7 · 2.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine if practicing anesthesiologists recommend preoperative evaluations consistent with the 2007 ACC/AHA guidelines on perioperative care. Survey instrument. Academic medical center. ASA membership. In this Web-based survey, participants were presented with 6 clinical scenarios characterized by surgical procedure and the patient's clinical condition (ie, clinical risk factors and functional capacity). Scenarios and possible recommendations were presented randomly. Participants were asked to select the recommendation they considered to be most consistent with the Guidelines. The percentage of participants selecting the recommendation most consistent with the 2007 Guidelines was recorded. Of the 22,504 actively practicing members of the ASA who were sent a survey, 1,595 actively practicing self-selected anesthesiologists responded. For one of 6 scenarios, patients with an active cardiac condition, the upper 95% confidence bound for the percent selecting a recommendation consistent with the Guidelines was 82%. For the remaining 5 scenarios, the upper 95% confidence bound for the percent of anesthesiologists with an appropriate recommendation did not exceed 40%. With the exception of the scenario describing a patient with an active cardiac condition, respondents were more likely to provide recommendations consistent with the Guidelines if they had been in practice less than 5 years or worked in a teaching environment. When evaluating simulated patients, practicing anesthesiologists who are ASA members did not recommend preoperative evaluations that were consistent with the 2007 ACC/AHA Guidelines.Journal of clinical anesthesia 06/2012; 24(6):446-55. DOI:10.1016/j.jclinane.2011.11.007 · 1.21 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have developed guidelines for perioperative assessment of patients in case of non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate if the preoperative cardiac evaluation of geriatric patients with hip fracture was in accordance with these guidelines and what the effects were on outcome. In a retrospective study 388 patients with hip fracture treated in the department of Trauma surgery of the Maastricht University Medical Centre in the Netherlands were included. All patients were treated between 2003 and 2006 and had at least two year follow-up. The preoperative cardiac screening was analysed with respect to content and to which level this followed the ACC/AHA guidelines. These guidelines were used to classify cardiac risk into low, intermediate and high risk. This was related to the outcome measurements delay to surgery, perioperative complications and mortality. According to the ACC/AHA guidelines 82% of patients received correct preoperative cardiac screening in the low vs. 46% in the intermediate and 86% in the high risk group. The most frequent reason for incorrect preoperative cardiac screening was overscreening (>95%). The delay to surgery increased by 9.9h in the case of overscreening (p=0.03). A previous cardiac history was a significant risk factor for early mortality. Delay of >48h was associated with more cardiovascular complications and mortality both on univariate and multivariate analysis. Preoperative cardiac screening is frequently unnecessary after hip fracture, especially in patients with intermediate risk predictors and increases the delay to surgery. Delay of >48h was associated with more cardiovascular complications and mortality postoperatively. The implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines may prevent unnecessary cardiac consultations which reduces preoperative resources, delay to surgery and possibly decreases postoperative complications.Injury 09/2012; 43(12):2146-51. DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2012.08.007 · 2.46 Impact Factor