Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in 18-35-year-old men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activity during the winter months. Eighty individuals (46 males, 34 females) provided resting blood and saliva samples for determination of markers of systemic immunity. Weekly training and illness logs were kept for the following 4 months. Thirty subjects did not experience an URTI episode and 24 subjects experienced 3 or more weeks of URTI symptoms. These illness-prone subjects had higher training loads and had ∼2.5-fold higher interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 production by antigen-stimulated whole blood culture than the illness-free subjects. Illness-prone subjects also had significantly lower saliva S-IgA secretion rate and higher plasma IgM (but not IgA or IgG) concentration than the illness-free subjects. There were no differences in circulating numbers of leukocyte subtypes or lymphocyte subsets between the illness-prone and illness-free subjects. The production of IL-10 was positively correlated and the S-IgA secretion rate was negatively correlated with the number of weeks with infection symptoms. It is concluded that high IL-10 production in response to antigen challenge and low S-IgA secretion are risk factors for development of URTI in physically active individuals.
- SourceAvailable from: Koen Van der Sluijs[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Secondary pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious complication during and shortly after influenza infection. We established a mouse model to study postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia and evaluated the role of IL-10 in host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae after recovery from influenza infection. C57BL/6 mice were intranasally inoculated with 10 median tissue culture infective doses of influenza A (A/PR/8/34) or PBS (control) on day 0. By day 14 mice had regained their normal body weight and had cleared influenza virus from the lungs, as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. On day 14 after viral infection, mice received 10(4) CFU of S. pneumoniae (serotype 3) intranasally. Mice recovered from influenza infection were highly susceptible to subsequent pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by a 100% lethality on day 3 after bacterial infection, whereas control mice showed 17% lethality on day 3 and 83% lethality on day 6 after pneumococcal infection. Furthermore, 1000-fold higher bacterial counts at 48 h after infection with S. pneumoniae and, particularly, 50-fold higher pulmonary levels of IL-10 were observed in influenza-recovered mice than in control mice. Treatment with an anti-IL-10 mAb 1 h before bacterial inoculation resulted in reduced bacterial outgrowth and markedly reduced lethality during secondary bacterial pneumonia compared with those in IgG1 control mice. In conclusion, mild self-limiting influenza A infection renders normal immunocompetent mice highly susceptible to pneumococcal pneumonia. This increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial pneumonia is at least in part caused by excessive IL-10 production and reduced neutrophil function in the lungs.The Journal of Immunology 07/2004; 172(12):7603-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent progress in our understanding of mechanisms by which the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) participates in an ever-increasing diversity of T-cell lineages to maintain immune homeostasis has broadened the framework for defining regulatory and effector T cells and has blurred the lines between them. In this review, we highlight established and emerging roles for IL-10 produced by distinct CD4(+) T-cell lineages that underlie its non-redundant role in curbing immune responses to the intestinal microbiota at steady state and its role to limit T-cell-driven inflammation in responses to pathogens.Immunological Reviews 01/2009; 226:219-33. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral infections can have one of two outcomes: control of viral replication and acute infection or viral persistence and chronic infection. It is clear that both pathogen and host characteristics influence the acute versus chronic outcome of viral infection. The early events in the host immune response that favor immunosuppression and viral persistence, however, have remained poorly understood. Using the well-characterized mouse model of acute versus chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, two groups have recently identified the interleukin-10 (IL-10)/IL-10R pathway as a key regulator of acute versus chronic infection. Blockade of IL-10R converted a chronic LCMV infection into a rapidly controlled acute viral infection and prevented the functional exhaustion of memory T cells. These insights into the role of IL-10 in the establishment of chronic infection could lead to new therapeutic opportunities during human infections with pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).Trends in Microbiology 05/2007; 15(4):143-6. · 8.43 Impact Factor