Article

Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2011; 22(3):410-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01272.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in 18-35-year-old men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activity during the winter months. Eighty individuals (46 males, 34 females) provided resting blood and saliva samples for determination of markers of systemic immunity. Weekly training and illness logs were kept for the following 4 months. Thirty subjects did not experience an URTI episode and 24 subjects experienced 3 or more weeks of URTI symptoms. These illness-prone subjects had higher training loads and had ∼2.5-fold higher interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 production by antigen-stimulated whole blood culture than the illness-free subjects. Illness-prone subjects also had significantly lower saliva S-IgA secretion rate and higher plasma IgM (but not IgA or IgG) concentration than the illness-free subjects. There were no differences in circulating numbers of leukocyte subtypes or lymphocyte subsets between the illness-prone and illness-free subjects. The production of IL-10 was positively correlated and the S-IgA secretion rate was negatively correlated with the number of weeks with infection symptoms. It is concluded that high IL-10 production in response to antigen challenge and low S-IgA secretion are risk factors for development of URTI in physically active individuals.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
54 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2)-exon-1 gene polymorphisms on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) incidence among endurance athletes. To this end, 100 healthy elite male athletes participating in the study were classified as either healthy or prone to frequent URTI. Blood samples, DNA isolation, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR-RFLP were performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of whole blood samples using the QIAmp DNA Blood Mini Kit. For comparison of the distribution of genotypes between two groups and for estimating odds ratios (OR) for URTI susceptibility in relation to the MBL2-exon-1 polymorphism, Pearson's chi-square and logistic regression method were used, respectively. The MBL2-exon-1 genotype distribution differed between athletes with URTI and healthy athletes (χ(2) = 7.81, p = 0.02). The AO and AO + OO genotypes of MBL2 were observed at a greater frequency in the illness-prone group compared with the healthy group (34.04% vs. 11.32%). In conclusion, findings from this study have identified a potential role of genetic variation in influencing the risk for URTI in athletic populations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MBL2-exon-1 genes were associated with an altered risk profile. These measures may have a predictive value in the identification of individuals who are more likely to experience recurrent infections when exposed to high physical stress in the areas of athletic endeavour.
    European journal of sport science. 03/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This chapter presents two common objective methods based on heart rate (HR) for monitoring training load (TL) in Taekwondo (TKD). A model is proposed for monitoring TL, overtraining, recovery and upper respiratory infection in TKD with simple and practical methods such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Hooper Index (ratings for the quality of sleep, quantity of fatigue, sleep and delayed onset muscle soreness [DOMS]), Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 (WURSS-21) questionnaire and total quality recovery (TQR).
    04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Moreira, A, Mortatti, AL, Arruda, AFS, Freitas, CG, de Arruda, M, and Aoki, MS. Salivary IgA response and upper respiratory tract infection symptoms during a 21-week competitive season in young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 467-473, 2014-Sports training and competition are significant sources of stress, especially for young athletes. It is well known that physiological and psychological stressors induce neuroendocrine responses that could modulate immune system function. However, to date, little is known about the immune responses of young soccer players during a competitive season. Therefore, this study examined the effects of a 21-week competitive season divided into preseason, competitive season, and detraining on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms, and salivary cortisol in preadolescent male soccer players. Thirty-four young soccer players agreed to participate, and 26 (12.9 ± 0.2 years) completed the entire study. The investigation period was structured as follows: a 12-week preparatory training phase (preseason training), a 7-week competitive and a 2-week detraining phase. Resting saliva samples were taken to determine cortisol and SIgA responses. The players were required to complete a weekly log during the entire investigation reporting every sign or symptoms consistent with URTI. A significant increase in SIgA secretion rate and a decrease in URTI symptoms were observed after the 2-week detraining period (p < 0.05). No change was observed for cortisol during the study. These results indicate that training and competition demands affect the mucosal immune responses of young athletes. In addition, a short-prophylactic period (2-week detraining period) after a competitive period may attenuate mucosal immunosuppression related to URTI symptoms. Sport coaches should monitor markers of mucosal immune function to minimize illness that ultimately might lead to a decrease in performance.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 02/2014; 28(2):467-73. · 1.80 Impact Factor