Spatially Detailed Survey on Pollution by Multiple Perfluorinated Compounds in the Tokyo Bay Basin of Japan

Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 03/2011; 45(7):2887-93. DOI: 10.1021/es103917r
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pollution from 35 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the water of the Tokyo Bay basin was examined. The water in the basin contained relatively high levels of perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compared to the other PFCs, which were present at concentrations of 20.1 ng/L, 6.7 ng/L, and 5.8 ng/L, respectively. In contrast, the concentrations of their precursors and degradation products were an order of magnitude lower. Sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent in the area also contained high levels of PFNA compared with the river water samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.0002). From a spatial aspect, increases in PFC pollution levels correlated with increased urbanization in the study area suggested that there are nonpoint source contributors to the PFC pollution in this area. Branched isomers of the PFCs were also quantified. Samples that contained high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) showed lower proportions of its branched isomer. This indicates that the branched isomers are more prominent in the area with lower PFC pollution. This analysis was beneficial for estimating the individual contributions of different PFCA production processes. This survey provided new information on the sources, spatial distribution, and behavioral characteristics of PFC pollutants in this area.

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Available from: Yasuyuki Zushi, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "Globally, PFOA concentrations in Tianjin and Weifang were comparable or higher than those detected in river systems of Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), South Korea (Hong et al., 2013), India (Yeung et al., 2009), Singapore (Nguyen et al., 2011), Germany (Llorca et al., 2012) and United States (Benskin et al., 2010), but much lower than some sites in Japan(Zushi et al., 2011; Takemine et al., 2014) and United States (Nakayama et al., 2010). As for median value, the levels of PFOA in the present study were comparable to those reported in Japan, where however PFNA were detected generally higher or even dominant in some cases (Zushi et al., 2011). PFOS concentrations in Tianjin were comparable to those in ChaoPhraya River, Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), rivers and west coastal water, South Korea (Hong et al., 2013; Naile et al., 2013), L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain (Pico et al., 2011), and Mississippi River, United States (Benskin et al., 2010) while PFOS concentrations in Weifang were lower and comparable to Bang Pakong River, Thailand (Boontanon et al., 2013), Ganges River, India (Yeung et al., 2009) and Main River, Germany (Llorca et al., 2012). "
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    • "This profile is in contrast with those observed in the other study locations as well as those reported in many countries, where PFNA is a minor compound compared with PFOA (Table 2). PFNA has been reported as a major PFC in urban surface water from Japan (Murakami et al. 2008), especially after the regulation of PFOS by the Stockholm Convention (Zushi et al. 2011). This may also be associated with the production and usage of ammonium perfluorononanoate (Prevedouros et al. 2006). "
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