Ibuprofen and glutathione conjugate as a potential therapeutic agent for treating Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antioxidant therapy might protect against the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present work, we synthesized a molecular combination of glutathione (GSH) and ibuprofen (IBU) via an amide bond and investigated its potential for targeted delivery of the parent drugs to neurons, where cellular oxidative stress and inflammation are related to AD. Evaluation of its physicochemical and in-vitro antioxidant properties indicated that compound 1 exhibits good stability toward human plasma enzymatic activity, and, like GSH, displays in-vitro free radical scavenging activity in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The new compound was also assessed by infusion in a rat model for Alzheimer's disease for its potential to antagonize the deleterious structural and cognitive effects of β-amyloid(1-40). In behavioral tests of long-term spatial memory, animals treated with codrug 1 performed significantly better than those treated with β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Histochemical findings confirmed the behavioral data, revealing that Aβ protein was less expressed in cerebral cortex treated with 1 than that treated with IBU. Taken together, the present findings suggest that conjugate 1 treatment may protect against the oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cognitive dysfunction induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of Aβ(1-40) in rats, and thus that codrug 1 could prove useful as a tool for controlling AD induced cerebral amyloid deposits and behavioral deterioration.
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ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of microglia and astrocytes is a characteristic of brain inflammation. Epidemiological studies have shown that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delays the onset of AD and suppresses its progression. Methyl salicylate-2-O-β-D-lactoside (DL0309) is a new molecule chemically related to salicylic acid. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of DL0309. Our studies show that DL0309 significantly inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α; and the expression of the inflammation-related proteins iNOS, COX-1, and COX-2 by microglia and astrocytes. At a concentration of 10 μM, DL0309 prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of NF-κB in glial cells by blocking phosphorylation of IKK and p65, and by blocking IκB degradation. We demonstrate here for the first time that DL0309 exerts anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells by suppressing different pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS/NO. Furthermore, it also regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway by blocking IKK and p65 activation and IκB degradation. DL0309 also acts as a non-selective COX inhibitor in glial cells. These studies suggest that DL0309 may be effective in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders, including AD.Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2011; 8:98. · 4.35 Impact Factor