Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.
ABSTRACT Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated.
In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE.
Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents.
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ABSTRACT: Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies.Scientia Pharmaceutica 12/2013; 81(4):889-932.
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ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to define the phenolic profile, flavonoid profile and the biological potentials of the ethanol extract of the berries of Juniperus excelsa growing in Lebanon. A total of 11 phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, vanilic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, sinapic acid, ellagic acid, myrcetin, and hesperitin were identified and quantified in Juniperus excelsa using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The ethanolic extract of the berries of J. excelsa was examined for the antioxidant activity using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The extract showed a strong scavenging activity with an IC50 48.90μg/ml compared to the synthetic antioxidant butylatedhydroxyltoluene (BHT) (IC50 91.40μg/ml). This strong antioxidant activity can be attributed to the total phenolic content (17.95mg/g of extract) and the total flavonoidal content (3.817mg/g of extract) of the extract that were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) and aluminum chloride methods, respectively.Journal of Natural Products. 01/2014; 7(1):162-167.
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ABSTRACT: Genetic variation within and among six populations of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb., in a common garden in Lakes District of Turkey, was analyzed using four nuclear microsatellite primer pairs originally developed for J. communis. A total of five loci were observed as Jc037 amplified two distinct size ranges. The number of alleles observed for the species varied from 2 to 13, with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The mean expected heterozygosity (H e) of populations was 0.584, after correction for null alleles. The mean F IS value (−0.014) was close to zero showing no significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed among populations (F ST = 0.028; p < 0.001) and Nei’s genetic distance ranged from 0.014 to 0.120 between population pairs. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between genetic distances on the one hand and geographic distances and trait differentiation on the other hand. However, the eastern populations Beyşehir and Sorgun showed very similar genotypic structures and were differentiated from all other populations. A continuous monitoring of phenotypic traits and the association between nucleotide variation in functional genes and adaptive traits such as drought and frost tolerance of J. excelsa populations in common gardens will be useful to design effective conservation strategies in the future.Trees 06/2012; 27(3). · 1.93 Impact Factor