How Delayed Graft Function Impacts Exposure to Mycophenolic Acid in Patients After Renal Transplantation
ABSTRACT Mycophenolic acid (MPA) plasma concentrations are highly variable on standard-dose mycophenolate mofetil therapy. At creatinine clearances below 25 mL/min, MPA clearance increases as a result of a higher nonprotein-bound fraction. Patients with delayed graft function (DGF) after renal transplantation are exposed to low total MPA concentrations, when risk of rejection is highest. This study investigated the influence of DGF on MPA exposure and on clinical outcome.
Adult renal transplantation patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and either microemulsified cyclosporine (n = 459) or tacrolimus (n = 371) participated in a randomized controlled trial (the Fixed-Dose Concentration-Controlled [FDCC] Study). Abbreviated MPA areas under the curve (AUCs) were obtained on Day 3, Day 10, Week 4, and Month 3, to calculate MPA AUC₀₋₁₂. Free MPA AUC values were available for a subgroup of patients (n = 269).
The overall incidence of DGF was 187 of 830 (23%) and did not differ between cyclosporine-treated (24%) and tacrolimus- (21%) treated patients. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection at 12 months was significantly higher in patients with DGF (13.8% versus 21.4%). Patients with DGF had significantly lower dose-corrected MPA AUC on Day 3 and Day 10. Free MPA fraction and dose-corrected free MPA AUC were significantly higher in patients with DGF, from Day 3 until Month 3. The total number of patients with at least one opportunistic infection was significantly higher in patients with DGF (33.2%) compared with patients without DGF (25.8%) (P = 0.048). Patients with DGF developing opportunistic infections did not have higher total MPA AUC nor higher free MPA AUC compared with those without opportunistic infections.
Patients with DGF have significantly lower dose-corrected MPA AUC in the first month after renal transplantation, presumably as a result of enhanced MPA clearance on account of the elevated MPA free fraction. Because patients with DGF have a higher rate of acute rejection and lower MPA exposure, higher dosing of mycophenolate mofetil in such patients may improve outcome. However, the already increased incidence of opportunistic infections in patients with DGF is a concern.
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ABSTRACT: Delayed graft function (DGF) is an important complication in renal transplantation, contributing significantly to decrease in long-term allograft survival. In addition to donor- and recipient-related risk factors such as immunosuppression, altered renal excretion of xenobiotics by membrane transporters may influence DGF. Using DNA samples from recipients and donors, we assessed the impact on DGF of genetic variants in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 2 (ABCC2), and the nuclear pregnane X receptor (PXR/NR1I2), which regulates the transcription of enzymes and transporters. In our local cohort of renal transplant recipients (n = 178), DGF occurred in 27.5%. The PXR 8055TT genotype of the donor only (not of the recipient) was significantly associated with an increased risk for DGF. This finding emerged from univariate as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis including 16 nongenetic factors and held true after correction for multiple testing. Our findings provide the first evidence that PXR may be associated with risk of DGF, independent of previously identified risk factors.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 03/2012; 91(5):905-16. DOI:10.1038/clpt.2011.346 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review aims to provide an update of the literature on the pharmacology and toxicology of mycophenolate in solid organ transplant recipients. Mycophenolate is now the antimetabolite of choice in immunosuppressant regimens in transplant recipients. The active drug moiety mycophenolic acid (MPA) is available as an ester pro-drug and an enteric-coated sodium salt. MPA is a competitive, selective and reversible inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an important rate-limiting enzyme in purine synthesis. MPA suppresses T and B lymphocyte proliferation; it also decreases expression of glycoproteins and adhesion molecules responsible for recruiting monocytes and lymphocytes to sites of inflammation and graft rejection; and may destroy activated lymphocytes by induction of a necrotic signal. Improved long-term allograft survival has been demonstrated for MPA and may be due to inhibition of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 or fibroblast proliferation. Recent research also suggested a differential effect of mycophenolate on the regulatory T cell/helper T cell balance which could potentially encourage immune tolerance. Lower exposure to calcineurin inhibitors (renal sparing) appears to be possible with concomitant use of MPA in renal transplant recipients without undue risk of rejection. MPA displays large between- and within-subject pharmacokinetic variability. At least three studies have now reported that MPA exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics, with bioavailability decreasing significantly with increasing doses, perhaps due to saturable absorption processes or saturable enterohepatic recirculation. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is still controversial and the ability of routine MPA TDM to improve long-term graft survival and patient outcomes is largely unknown. MPA monitoring may be more important in high-immunological recipients, those on calcineurin-inhibitor-sparing regimens and in whom unexpected rejection or infections have occurred. The majority of pharmacodynamic data on MPA has been obtained in patients receiving MMF therapy in the first year after kidney transplantation. Low MPA area under the concentration time from 0 to 12 h post-dose (AUC0-12) is associated with increased incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection although AUC0-12 optimal cut-off values vary across study populations. IMPDH monitoring to identify individuals at increased risk of rejection shows some promise but is still in the experimental stage. A relationship between MPA exposure and adverse events was identified in some but not all studies. Genetic variants within genes involved in MPA metabolism (UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT2B7), cellular transportation (SLCOB1, SLCO1B3, ABCC2) and targets (IMPDH) have been reported to effect MPA pharmacokinetics and/or response in some studies; however, larger studies across different ethnic groups that take into account genetic linkage and drug interactions that can alter a patient's phenotype are needed before any clinical recommendations based on patient genotype can be formulated. There is little data on the pharmacology and toxicology of MPA in older and paediatric transplant recipients.Archives of Toxicology 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1247-1 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the association between longitudinal exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA) and acute rejection (AR) risk in the first year after renal transplantation, and to propose MPA exposure targets conditionally to this association. A joint model, adjusted for monitoring strategy (fixed-dose versus concentration-controlled) and recipient age, was developed; it combined a mixed-effects model to describe the whole pattern of MPA exposure (i.e. area under the concentration-time curve -AUC-) and a survival model. MPA AUC thresholds were determined using time-dependent Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. Data from 490 adult renal-transplant recipients, representative of the general population of adult renal-transplant patients (i.e. including patients considered at low immunological risk-enrolled in the OPERA trial- as well as second renal transplant and patients co-treated by either cyclosporine or tacrolimus), were analyzed. A significant association was found between the longitudinal exposure to MPA (MPA AUCs=f(t)) and AR (p=0.0081), and validated by bootstrapping. A significant positive correlation was observed between time post-transplantation and ROC thresholds which increased in average from 35mg.h/L in the first days to 41mg.h/L beyond six months post-transplantation (p<0.001). Using a new modeling approach which recognizes the repeated measures in a same patient, this study supports the association between MPA exposure and AR.Pharmacological Research 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.03.009 · 3.98 Impact Factor