Elevated Serum Free Light Chains Are Associated With Event-Free and Overall Survival in Two Independent Cohorts of Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 03/2011; 29(12):1620-6. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.29.4413
Source: PubMed


The serum free light chain (FLC) assay quantitates free kappa (κ) and free lambda (λ) immunoglobulin light chains. This assay has prognostic value in plasma cell proliferative disorders. There are limited data on serum FLC in B-cell malignancies.
The association of pretreatment FLC with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was evaluated in 76 patients from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group trial N0489 (NCT00301821) and 219 patients from the University of Iowa/Mayo Clinic Specialized Program of Research Excellence Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER). Published reference ranges were used to define an elevated FLC or an abnormal κ:λ FLC ratio.
Elevated FLC or abnormal κ:λ FLC ratio was present in 32% and 14% of patients, respectively. Patients with elevated FLC had an inferior OS and EFS in both cohorts compared with patients with normal FLC (N0489: EFS hazard ratio [HR], 3.06; OS HR, 3.16; both P < .02; MER: EFS HR, 2.42; OS HR, 3.40; both P < .001; combined EFS HR, 2.57; OS HR, 3.74; both P < .001). All associations remained significant for EFS and OS after adjusting for the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Abnormal κ:λ FLC ratio was modestly associated with outcome in the combined group (EFS HR, 1.61; OS HR, 1.67; both P = .07), but not in patients without corresponding elevated κ or λ. Elevated FLC was the strongest predictor of outcome in multivariable models with the IPI components.
Increased serum FLC is an independent, adverse prognostic factor for EFS and OS in DLBCL and warrants further evaluation as a biomarker in DLBCL.

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Available from: Sergei I Syrbu, Jan 10, 2014
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    • "It has been suggested that monoclonal FLC are secreted by lymphoma cells (Maurer et al, 2011) and their presence might therefore indicate malignant transformation in a certain stage of B-cell differentiation (Campo et al, 2011). In our study, there was no association of FLC abnormalities with any morphological lymphoma subtype or with GCB or non-GCB lymphoma according to the Hans classifier. "

    British Journal of Haematology 06/2014; 167(3). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13001 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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    • "In 2011 Maurer et al [16], showed that increased serum FLC, present in 32% of DLBCL was an independent adverse prognostic factor. More recently, after the introduction of a new sensitive method for immunoglobulin heavy chain detection, a prospective study showed elevated IgMκ or IgMλ or an abnormal IgMκ/IgMλ ratio to occur in 9.3% and 19.1% of DLBCL respectively [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p = .002) stage III-IV(p = .003), ≥2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p = .002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3-5 (p = .009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p = .005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p = .005, expB = 0.339, CI = 0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3-5 (p = .010, expB = 0.274, CI = 0.102-0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93903. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093903 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Free light chains (FLCs) are the most commonly detected paraproteins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We examined the types of FLC abnormalities and prognostic utility of the FLC assay compared with standard prognostic biomarkers in a prospective cohort of 339 patients with newly diagnosed CLL. Three types of FLC abnormalities were identified: monoclonal elevated FLC (elevated κ and/or λ with abnormal FLC ratio), polyclonal elevated FLC (elevated κ and/or λ with normal FLC ratio), and ratio-only FLC abnormality (normal range κ and λ with abnormal FLC ratio). One hundred sixty-five patients (49%) had a FLC abnormality with approximately equal distribution among monoclonal elevation, polyclonal elevation, and ratio-only abnormality. All FLC abnormalities were associated with poor time to first treatment: monoclonal FLC (hazard ratio [HR], 4.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-8.48), polyclonal FLC (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.24-4.64), ratio-only FLC (HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.40-4.69). Monoclonal FLC and polyclonal FLC were associated with poor overall survival compared with patients with normal FLC. Results remained significant after adjusting for Rai stage. The FLC assay is a simple, widely available clinical test with similar prognostic utility as routinely used prognostic biomarkers for CLL. Among persons with FLC abnormalities, the type of abnormality affects prognostic significance.
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