Prevalence and Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorder in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 03/2011; 68(3):241-51. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.12
Source: PubMed


There is limited information on the prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in international population-based studies using common methods.
To describe the prevalence, impact, patterns of comorbidity, and patterns of service utilization for bipolar spectrum disorder (BPS) in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative.
Cross-sectional, face-to-face, household surveys of 61,392 community adults in 11 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia assessed with the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0, a fully structured, lay-administered psychiatric diagnostic interview.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) disorders, severity, and treatment.
The aggregate lifetime prevalences were 0.6% for bipolar type I disorder (BP-I), 0.4% for BP-II, 1.4% for subthreshold BP, and 2.4% for BPS. Twelve-month prevalences were 0.4% for BP-I, 0.3% for BP-II, 0.8% for subthreshold BP, and 1.5% for BPS. Severity of both manic and depressive symptoms as well as suicidal behavior increased monotonically from subthreshold BP to BP-I. By contrast, role impairment was similar across BP subtypes. Symptom severity was greater for depressive episodes than manic episodes, with approximately 74.0% of respondents with depression and 50.9% of respondents with mania reporting severe role impairment. Three-quarters of those with BPS met criteria for at least 1 other disorder, with anxiety disorders (particularly panic attacks) being the most common comorbid condition. Less than half of those with lifetime BPS received mental health treatment, particularly in low-income countries, where only 25.2% reported contact with the mental health system.
Despite cross-site variation in the prevalence rates of BPS, the severity, impact, and patterns of comorbidity were remarkably similar internationally. The uniform increases in clinical correlates, suicidal behavior, and comorbidity across each diagnostic category provide evidence for the validity of the concept of BPS. Treatment needs for BPS are often unmet, particularly in low-income countries.

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Available from: Elie Georges Karam, Apr 18, 2014
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    • "Cognitive-behavioural therapy for BPSD has shown mixed outcomes so far (Thase et al., 2014), with some evidence that assumptions and beliefs about the self may moderate response to treatment (Lam et al., 2005). Onset of BPSD is typically in early adulthood (Merikangas et al., 2011), which represents an important period for development of the self (Fitzgerald, 1988; Rathbone et al., 2008, Burnett Heyes et al., 2013). Psychopathology research can contribute to treatment innovation by focusing on aspects of psychopathology that remain insufficiently explored yet (Di Simplicio et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar Spectrum Disorder (BPSD) is associated with changes in self-related processing and affect, yet the relationship between self-image and affect in the BPSD phenotype is unclear. 47 young adults were assessed for hypomanic experiences (BPSD phenotype) using the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Current and future self-images (e.g. I am… I will be…) were generated and rated for emotional valence, stability, and (for future self-images only) certainty. The relationship between self-image ratings and measures of affect (depression, anxiety and mania) were analysed in relation to the BPSD phenotype. The presence of the BPSD phenotype significantly moderated the relationship between (1) affect and stability ratings for negative self-images, and (2) affect and certainty ratings for positive future self-images. Higher positivity ratings for current self-images were associated with lower depression and anxiety scores. This was a non-clinical group of young adults sampled for hypomanic experiences, which limits the extension of the work to clinical levels of psychopathology. This study cannot address the causal relationships between affect, self-images, and BPSD. Future work should use clinical samples and experimental mood manipulation designs. BPSD phenotype can shape the relationship between affect and current and future self-images. This finding will guide future clinical research to elucidate BPSD vulnerability mechanisms and, consequently, the development of early interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2015; 187:97-100. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.042 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly prevalent (Catalá-López et al., 2013; Merikangas et al., 2011) and disabling disease (Huxley and Baldessarini, 2007; Judd et al., 2005; Rosa et al., 2008, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of functional outcome predictors after acute episodes of bipolar disorders (BD) may allow designing appropriate treatment aiming at restoring psychosocial functioning. Our objective was to identify the best functional outcome predictors at a 6-month follow-up after an index manic episode. We conducted a naturalistic trial (MANACOR) focusing on the global burden of BD, with special emphasis on manic episode-associated costs. We observed patients with BD seen in services of four hospitals in Catalonia (Spain).The total sample included 169 patients with chronic DSM-IV-TR BD I suffering from an acute manic episode who were followed-up for 6 months. In this subanalysis we report the results of a stepwise multiple regression conducted by entering in the model those clinical and sociodemographic variables that were identified through preliminary bivariate Pearson correlations and using total scores on the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) at the 6-month follow-up as the dependent variable. Number of previous depressive episodes (Beta=3.25; t=3.23; p=0.002), presence of psychotic symptoms during the manic index episode (Beta=7.007; t=2.2; p=0.031) and the Body Mass Index (BMI) at baseline (Beta=0.62; t=2.09; p=0.041) were best predictors of functional outcome after a manic episode. The main limitations of this study include the retrospective assessment of the episodes, which can be a source of bias, and the 6-month follow-up might have been too short for assessing the course of a chronic illness. Psychotic symptoms at index episode, number of past depressive episodes, and BMI predict worse outcome after 6 months follow-up after a manic episode, and may constitute the target of specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2015; 182. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.043 · 3.38 Impact Factor
    • "Accordingly to the World Mental Health Survey, the total lifetime prevalence of type 1 BD is 0.6%, type II BD is 0.4% and subthreshold BD is 1.4%, yielding a total prevalence estimate for the Bipolar Disorder Spectrum of 2.4% worldwide (Merikangas et al., 2011). The average age of onset varies from 17 to 27 years, with no differences for both sexes (Gelder et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar Disorder is characterized by episodes running the full mood spectrum, from mania to depression. Between mood episodes, residual symptoms remain, as sleep alterations, circadian cycle disturbances, emotional deregulation, cognitive impairment and increased risk for comorbidities. The present review intends to reflect about the most recent and relevant information concerning the biunivocal relation between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles. It was conducted a literature search on PubMed database using the search terms "bipolar", "circadian", "melatonin", "cortisol", "body temperature", "Clock gene", "Bmal1 gene", "Per gene", "Cry gene", "GSK3β", "chronotype", "light therapy", "dark therapy", "sleep deprivation", "lithum" and "agomelatine". Search results were manually reviewed, and pertinent studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Several studies support the relationship between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles, discussing alterations in melatonin, body temperature and cortisol rhythms; disruption of sleep/wake cycle; variations of clock genes; and chronotype. Some therapeutics for bipolar disorder directed to the circadian cycles disturbances are also discussed, including lithium carbonate, agomelatine, light therapy, dark therapy, sleep deprivation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. This review provides a summary of an extensive research for the relevant literature on this theme, not a patient-wise meta-analysis. In the future, it is essential to achieve a better understanding of the relation between bipolar disorder and the circadian system. It is required to establish new treatment protocols, combining psychotherapy, therapies targeting the circadian rhythms and the latest drugs, in order to reduce the risk of relapse and improve affective behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2015; 185:219-229. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.017 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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