Article

Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system.

Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2011; 108(12):5051-6. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1009516108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis must import iron from its host for survival, and its siderophore-dependent iron acquisition pathways are well established. Here we demonstrate a newly characterized pathway, whereby M. tuberculosis can use free heme and heme from hemoglobin as an iron source. Significantly, we identified the genomic region, Rv0202c-Rv0207c, responsible for the passage of heme iron across the mycobacterial membrane. Key players of this heme uptake system were characterized including a secreted protein and two transmembrane proteins, all three specific to mycobacteria. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the key heme carrier protein Rv0203 was found to have a unique fold. The discovery of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition pathway opens new avenues of exploration into mycobacterial therapeutics.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Julian Philip Whitelegge, Jul 05, 2015
4 Followers
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Haem is the major iron source for bacteria that develop in higher organisms. In these hosts, bacteria have to cope with nutritional immunity imposed by the host, since haem and iron are tightly bound to carrier and storage proteins. Siderophores were the first recognized fighters in the battle for iron between bacteria and host. They are non-proteinaceus organic molecules having an extremely high affinity for Fe(3+) and able to extract it from host proteins. Haemophores, that display functional analogy with siderophores, were more recently discovered. They are a class of secreted proteins with a high affinity for haem; they are able to extract haem from host haemoproteins and deliver it to specific receptors that internalize haem. In the past few years, a wealth of data has accumulated on haem acquisition systems that are dependent on surface exposed/secreted bacterial proteins. They promote haem transfer from its initial source (in most cases, a eukaryotic haem binding protein) to the transporter that carries out the membrane crossing step. Here we review recent discoveries in this field, with particular emphasis on similar and dissimilar mechanisms in haemophores and siderophores, from the initial host source to the binding protein/receptor at the cell surface.
    Molecular Microbiology 06/2012; 85(4):618-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08136.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identification of genes regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has provided insights into the diverse mechanisms of adaptation to iron limitation. In the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Fur senses iron sufficiency and represses genes that enable iron uptake, including biosynthetic and transport genes for the siderophore bacillibactin and uptake systems for siderophores produced by other organisms. We here demonstrate that Fur regulates hmoA (formerly yetG), which encodes a haem monooxygenase. HmoA is the first characterized member of a divergent group of putative monooxygenases that cluster separately from the well-characterized IsdG family. B. subtilis also encodes an IsdG family protein designated HmoB (formerly YhgC). Unlike hmoA, hmoB is constitutively expressed and not under Fur control. HmoA and HmoB both bind haemin in vitro with approximately 1 : 1 stoichiometry and degrade haemin in the presence of an electron donor. Mutational and spectroscopic analyses indicate that HmoA and HmoB have distinct active site architectures and interact differently with haem. We further show that B. subtilis can use haem as an iron source, but that this ability is independent of HmoA and HmoB.
    Microbiology 08/2011; 157(Pt 11):3221-31. DOI:10.1099/mic.0.053579-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. Attempts to control this disease have proved difficult owing to our poor understanding of the pathobiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the emergence of strains that are resistant to multiple drugs currently available for treatment. Genome-wide expression profiling has provided new insight into the transcriptome signatures of the bacterium during infection, notably of macrophages and dendritic cells. These data indicate that M. tuberculosis expresses numerous genes to evade the host immune responses, to suit its intracellular life style, and to respond to various antibiotic drugs. Among the intracellularly induced genes, several have functions in lipid metabolism, cell wall synthesis, iron uptake, oxidative stress resistance, protein secretion, or inhibition of apoptosis. Herein we review these findings and discuss possible ways to exploit the data to understand the complex etiology of TB and to find new effective drug targets.
    FEMS microbiology reviews 08/2011; 36(2):463-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00302.x · 13.81 Impact Factor