Recognition and functional activation of the human IgA receptor (FcalphaRI) by C-reactive protein.

Structural Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2011; 108(12):4974-9. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018369108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important biomarker for inflammatory diseases. However, its role in inflammation beyond complement-mediated pathogen clearance remains poorly defined. We identified the major IgA receptor, FcαRI, as a ligand for pentraxins. CRP recognized FcαRI both in solution and on cells, and the pentraxin binding site on the receptor appears distinct from that recognized by IgA. Further competitive binding and mutational analysis showed that FcαRI bound to the effector face of CRP in a region overlapping with complement C1q and Fcγ receptor (FcγR) binding sites. CRP cross-linking of FcαRI resulted in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, cytokine production, and degranulation in FcαRI-transfected RBL cells. In neutrophils, CRP induced FcαRI surface expression, phagocytosis, and TNF-α secretion. The ability of CRP to activate FcαRI defines a function for pentraxins in inflammatory responses involving neutrophils and macrophages. It also highlights the innate aspect of otherwise humoral immunity-associated antibody receptors.

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    ABSTRACT: The plasma protein serum amyloid P (SAP) reduces neutrophil adhesion, inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, and promotes phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages. Together, these effects of SAP reduce key aspects of inflammation and fibrosis, and SAP injections improve lung function in pulmonary fibrosis patients. SAP functions are mediated, in part, by FcγRs, but the contribution of each FcγR is not fully understood. We found that aa Q55 and E126 in human SAP affect human fibrocyte differentiation and SAP binding to FcγRI. E126, K130, and Q128 affect neutrophil adhesion and SAP affinity for FcγRIIa. Q128 also affects phagocytosis by macrophages and SAP affinity for FcγRI. All the identified functionally significant amino acids in SAP form a binding site that is distinct from the previously described SAP-FcγRIIa binding site. Blocking FcγRI with an IgG-blocking Ab reduces the SAP effect on fibrocyte differentiation, and ligating FcγRIIa with Abs reduces neutrophil adhesion. Together, these results suggest that SAP binds to FcγRI on monocytes to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation, and binds to FcγRIIa on neutrophils to reduce neutrophil adhesion.
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