This review summarises the literature on quality of life (QOL) assessments in both children and adults with functional constipation. Studies of adults with constipation include subjects from both tertiary care centres and population-based surveys whereas there are no population-based studies in children. The preponderance of evidence indicates that the adverse effects of chronic constipation on QOL in both children and adults are comparable to that seen in other chronic gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders. There are no data on the effect of treatment of children with constipation with regard to QOL whereas several studies indicate that successful treatment of constipation in adults has a favourable effect on QOL. The emerging concept in the treatment of chronic constipation is to measure both objective measures such as frequency and ease of defecation and subjective parameters such as QOL.
"In these studies, the rate of treatment success ranged from 57%  to 67% , but there was no difference between the groups in any of the studies. Constipation unfavorably influences the quality of life of affected children  . While the goal of treatment of functional constipation is to restore a regular defecation pattern and to prevent relapses, the persistence of symptoms of constipation was reported in 30–52% of children followed up for at least 5 years  . "
"The prevalence is higher in females, older individuals, those of lower socioeconomic status, and those with a lower educational level [2,3]. As a common and well-recognized public health problem, functional constipation influences patient quality of life and consumes many healthcare resources [4,5]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation.
A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1) Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group); (2) He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group); (3) Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group). The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization.
The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012) will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, a unique two-step process, i.e., an oxyfluorination-assisted graft polymerization (OAGP), was used to modify the surface properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films. Based on the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, which was performed to estimate the amount of hydroperoxides generated by oxyfluorination, oxyfluorination conditions that maximize the amount of hydroperoxide groups were selected. Hydroperoxides were generated by oxyfluorination to provide active sites for the OAGP of the different monomers. Depending on the type of monomers used, two different graft polymerization behaviors were observed. Hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MA) monomers were graft polymerized onto the oxyfluorinated LDPE (OFPE) surface in a perpendicular direction, forming a spike-shaped morphology. On the other hand, hydrophobic styrene (ST) monomers were graft polymerized parallel to the OFPE surface, forming a valley-shaped morphology. By changing the type of vinyl monomers, two different surfaces could be prepared using the hydroperoxides generated by oxyfluorination. After OAGP with MA monomers, a hydrophilic surface following the Wenzel model was obtained, whereas after OAGP with ST monomers, a hydrophobic surface following the Cassie–Baxter model was obtained. Therefore, the OAGP process may be an efficient method for preparing two different surfaces by changing the monomer used.
Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 01/2011; 373(1-3):36-41. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2010.10.008 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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