Analyzing protein-protein interactions by quantitative mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Since most cellular processes depend on interactions between proteins, information about protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provide valuable insights into protein function. Over the last years, quantitative affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (q-AP-MS) has become a powerful approach to investigate PPIs in an unbiased manner. In q-AP-MS the protein of interest is biochemically enriched together with its interaction partners. In parallel, a control experiment is performed to control for non-specific binding. Quantitative mass spectrometry is then employed to compare protein levels in both samples and to exclude non-specific contaminants. Here, we provide two detailed q-AP-MS protocols for pull-downs with immobilized bait proteins or transient transfection of tagged expression constructs. We discuss benefits and limitations of q-AP-MS and highlight critical parameters that need to be considered. The protocols and background information presented here allow the reader to adapt the generic q-AP-MS strategy for a wide range of biological questions.
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ABSTRACT: Co-immunoprecipitation (coIP) in combination with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool to identify potential protein-protein interactions. However, unspecifically precipitated proteins usually result in large numbers of false-positive identifications. Here we describe a detailed protocol particularly useful in plant sciences that is based on (15)N stable isotope labeling of cells, (14)N antigen titration, and coIP/MS to distinguish true from false protein-protein interactions.Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1188:245-61. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small protein modifier that is covalently attached to the ε-amino group of lysine residues of protein substrates, generally targeting them for degradation. Due to the emergence of specific anti-diglycine (-GG) antibodies and the improvement in MS, it is now possible to identify more than 10 000 ubiquitylated sites in a single proteomics study. Besides cataloging ubiquitylated sites, it is equally important to unravel the biological relationship between ubiquitylated substrates and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery. Relevant to this, we discuss the role of affinity purification-MS (AP-MS), in characterizing E3 ligase-substrate complexes. Recently, such strategies have also been adapted to screen for binding partners of both deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) and ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs). The complexity of the “ubiquitome” is further expanded by the fact that Ub itself can be ubiquitylated at any of its seven lysine residues forming polyubiquitin (polyUb), thus diversifying its lengths and topologies to suit a variety of molecular recognition processes. Therefore, applying MS to study polyUb linkages is also becoming an emerging and important area. Finally, we discuss the future of MS-based proteomics in answering important questions with respect to ubiquitylation.Proteomics 02/2013; 13(3-4). · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CIDE-N domains mediate interactions between the DNase Dff40/CAD and its inhibitor Dff45/ICAD. In this study, we report that the CIDE-N protein Drep-2 is a novel synaptic protein important for learning and behavioral adaptation. Drep-2 was found at synapses throughout the Drosophila brain and was strongly enriched at mushroom body input synapses. It was required within Kenyon cells for normal olfactory short- and intermediate-term memory. Drep-2 colocalized with metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Chronic pharmacological stimulation of mGluRs compensated for drep-2 learning deficits, and drep-2 and mGluR learning phenotypes behaved non-additively, suggesting that Drep 2 might be involved in effective mGluR signaling. In fact, Drosophila fragile X protein mutants, shown to benefit from attenuation of mGluR signaling, profited from the elimination of drep-2. Thus, Drep-2 is a novel regulatory synaptic factor, probably intersecting with metabotropic signaling and translational regulation.eLife Sciences 11/2014; 3:e03895. · 8.52 Impact Factor