Primary antiretroviral drug resistance in newly human immunodeficiency virus-diagnosed individuals testing anonymously and confidentially.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 1.99). 03/2011; 17(2):283-9. DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2010.0066
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine if anonymous and confidential testers differ in recency of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at time of testing and prevalence of antiretroviral drug (ARV) resistance. We examined data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing project, which performed genotypic testing on leftover HIV diagnostic serum specimens of confidentially and anonymously tested ARV-naïve persons newly diagnosed with HIV in Colorado (n = 365 at 11 sites) and King County, Washington (n = 492 at 44 sites). The serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion was used to classify people as likely to have been recently infected or not. Type of testing, anonymous or confidential, was not significantly associated with either timing of HIV testing by serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion or resistance rates. Mutations conferring any level of ARV resistance were present in 17% of testers, and high-level resistance mutations were present in 10%. Anonymous testers were significantly more likely to have CD4+ counts >500 cells per mm(3) (45% vs. 28%; p = 0.018), indicative of an early infection. This study indicates that anonymous testers have demographic differences relative to confidential HIV testers but were not more likely to exhibit drug resistance. Findings related to when in the course of disease anonymous testers are tested are inconsistent, but anonymous testers had higher CD4 counts, which indicates early testing and is consistent with other studies.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary, or transmitted, HIV antiretroviral resistance is an ongoing concern despite continuing development of new antiretroviral therapies. We examined HIV surveillance data, including both patient demographic characteristics and laboratory data, combined with HIV genotypic test results to evaluate the comprehensiveness of drug resistance surveillance, prevalence of primary drug resistance, and impact, if any, of primary resistance on population-based virological outcomes. The King County, WA Variant, Atypical, and Resistant HIV Surveillance (VARHS) system increased coverage of eligible genotypic testing - within three months of an HIV diagnosis among antiretroviral naïve individuals -- from - 15% in 2003 to 69% in 2010. VARHS under-represented females, Blacks, Native Americans, and injection drug users. Primary drug resistance was more common among males, individuals aged 20 - 29 years, men who had sex with men, and individuals with an initial CD4+ lymphocyte count of 200 cells/µL and higher. High level resistance to two or three antiretroviral classes declined over time. Over 90% of sequences were HIV-1 subtype B. The proportion of individuals with a most recent viral load (closest to April 2011) that was undetectable (<50 copies/mL) was not statistically significantly associated with primary drug resistance. This was true for both number and type of antiretroviral drug class; although small numbers of specimens with drug resistance may have limited our statistical power. In summary, although we found disparities in testing coverage and prevalence of drug resistance, we were unable to detect a significantly deleterious impact of primary drug resistance based on a most recent viral load.
    The Open AIDS Journal 01/2012; 6:181-7.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014