Article

HNF1B and PAX2 mutations are a common cause of renal hypodysplasia in the CKiD cohort

Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY, USA.
Pediatric Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.88). 03/2011; 26(6):897-903. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-011-1826-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Malformations of the kidney and lower urinary tract are the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Mutations in HNF1Β and PAX2 commonly cause syndromic urinary tract malformation. We searched for mutations in HNF1Β and PAX2 in North American children with renal aplasia and hypodysplasia (RHD) enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Cohort Study (CKiD). We identified seven mutations in this multiethnic cohort (10% of patients). In HNF1Β, we identified a nonsense (p.R181X), a missense (p.S148L), and a frameshift (Y352fsX352) mutation, and one whole gene deletion. In PAX2, we identified one splice site (IVS4-1G>T), one missense (p.G24E), and one frameshift (G24fsX28) mutation. All mutations occurred in Caucasians, accounting for 14% of disease in this subgroup. The absence of mutations in other ethnicities is likely due to the limited sample size. There were no differences in clinical parameters (age, baseline eGFR, blood pressure, body mass index, progression) between patients with or without HNF1B and PAX2 mutations. A significant proportion of North American Caucasian patients with RHD carry mutations in HNF1Β or PAX2 genes. These patients should be evaluated for complications (e.g., diabetes for HNF1Β mutations, colobomas for PAX2) and referred for genetic counseling.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Jan 08, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
208 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human PAX2 mutations have been associated with abnormalities in the developing and adult kidney ranging from congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) to oncogenic processes. Defining the relationship of PAX2 to human renal disease requires an appreciation of its fundamental role in renal development. Given the highly conserved nature of the PAX2 gene in vertebrates, it is not surprising that much of our understanding of PAX2 involvement in renal disease has been derived from animal models. The following review will outline the current evidence supporting involvement of PAX2 in the pathologic processes involving the kidney.
    Pediatric Nephrology 12/2011; 27(8):1265-75. DOI:10.1007/s00467-011-2053-0
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal coloboma syndrome, also known as papillorenal syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by ocular and renal malformations. Mutations in the paired-box gene, PAX2, have been identified in approximately half of individuals with classic findings of renal hypoplasia/dysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve. Prior to 2011, there was no actively maintained locus-specific database (LSDB) cataloguing the extent of genetic variation in the PAX2 gene and phenotypic variation in individuals with renal coloboma syndrome. Review of published cases and the collective diagnostic experience of three laboratories in the United States, France, and New Zealand identified 55 unique mutations in 173 individuals from 86 families. The three clinical laboratories participating in this collaboration contributed 28 novel variations in 68 individuals in 33 families, which represent a 50% increase in the number of variations, patients, and families published in the medical literature. An LSDB was created using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform: www.lovd.nl/PAX2. The most common findings reported in this series were abnormal renal structure or function (92% of individuals), ophthalmological abnormalities (77% of individuals), and hearing loss (7% of individuals). Additional clinical findings and genetic counseling implications are discussed.
    Human Mutation 12/2011; 33(3):457-66. DOI:10.1002/humu.22020
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transcription factors HNF1B and Pax2, co-expressed in the Wolffian duct and ureteric bud epithelia, play essential roles during the early steps of mouse kidney development. In humans, heterozygous mutations in these genes display a number of common kidney phenotypes, including hypoplasia and multicystic hypoplastic kidneys. Moreover, a high prevalence of mutations either in HNF1B or PAX2 has been observed in children with renal hypodysplasia. To gain a better understanding of Hnf1b and Pax2 interactions in vivo, we generated compound heterozygous mice for Hnf1b and Pax2 null alleles. We show here that compound heterozygous mutants display phenotypes similar to severe congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT), including strong hypoplasia of the kidneys, caudal ectopic aborted ureter buds, duplex kidneys, megaureters and hydronephrosis. At a molecular level, compound mutants show a delay in nephron segment and medullar interstitial differentiation, increased apoptosis and a transient decrease in Lim1 and Wnt4 expression. We also observe a perturbation of smooth muscle differentiation around the ureter associated with a local down-regulation in transcript levels of Bmp4 and Tbx18, two key regulators involved in ureter smooth muscle formation, thus explaining, at least in part, megaureters. These results together uncover a novel role of Hnf1b as a modifier of the Pax2 haplo-insufficient phenotype and show that these two transcription factors operate in common pathways governing both kidney morphogenesis and ureter differentiation. This mouse model should provide new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of human CAKUT, the most frequent developmental defect identified in newborns.
    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2012; 21(14):3143-55. DOI:10.1093/hmg/dds141