Association between IL28B gene polymorphisms and plasma HCV-RNA levels in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients
ABSTRACT IL28B polymorphisms influence both the rate of spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and response to interferon α (IFNα)-based therapy. This observation has been reproduced in HIV-co-infected individuals. Controversy exists about the impact of IL28B alleles on HCV load.
CoRIS is a nationwide, open cohort of newly diagnosed HIV-1 adults in Spain. In the subset of HCV-co-infected individuals, the relationship between plasma HCV-RNA and IL28B (rs12979860) genotypes was evaluated.
A total of 4670 HIV-1-infected patients had been included in CoRIS up to June 2010. All were naive for IFNα. HCV antibodies were reactive in 895 (19%). Of them, 289 specimens were available and tested positive for plasma HCV-RNA, with median values of 959 900 IU/ml. The rs12979860 genotype distribution in HCV viremic patients was CC 45%, CT 42.2% and TT 12.8%. The median plasma HCV-RNA according to IL28B genotypes was: CC 1 385 000, CT 848 939 and TT 251 189 IU/ml (P = 0.006). The percentage of patients with HCV-RNA more than 600 000 IU/ml was: CC 67.7%, CT 56.6% and TT 35.1% (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, IL28B CC/CT genotypes, infection with HCV genotypes 1/4 and prior intravenous drug users were independent predictors of HCV-RNA more than 600 000 IU/ml.
HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with the C allele (CC/CT) at rs12979860 show significantly higher plasma HCV-RNA load than TT carriers. Notably, plasma HCV-RNA levels associated with poorer response to IFNα-based therapy are significantly more frequent in CC/CT than TT carriers. Hypothetically, patients harboring the rs12979860 allele C could display a lower activity of endogenous IFNα, allowing higher HCV replication while keeping an enhanced susceptibility to exogenous IFNα therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Kristian Schønning[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis has been associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and genetic variation near the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene, but the relative contribution is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between HCV genotypes, IL28B and development of liver stiffness. This cross-sectional study consists of 369 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Liver stiffness was evaluated using transient elastograhy (TE). Factors associated with development of liver fibrosis were identified by logistic regression analysis. We identified 369 patients with CHC. 235 were male, 297 Caucasians, and 223 had been exposed to HCV through intravenous drug use. The overall median TE value was 7.4 kPa (interquartile range (IQR) 5.7-12.1). HCV replication was enhanced in patients carrying the IL28B CC genotype compared to TT and TC (5.8 vs. 5.4 log10 IU/mL, p = 0.03). Patients infected with HCV genotype 3 had significantly higher TE values (8.2 kPa; IQR, 5.9-14.5) compared to genotype 1 (6.9 kPa; IQR, 5.4-10.9) and 2 (6.7 kPa; IQR, 4.9-8.8) (p = 0.02). Within patients with genotype 3, IL28B CC genotype had the highest TE values (p = 0.04). However, in multivariate logistic regression, using various cut-off values for fibrosis and cirrhosis, only increasing age (odds ratio (OR) 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.14 per year increment)), ALT (OR 1.01 (95% CI, 1.002-1.011), per unit increment) and HCV genotype 3 compared to genotype 1 (OR 2.40 (95% CI, 1.19-4.81), were consistently associated with cirrhosis (TE>17.1 kPa). Age, ALT and infection with HCV genotype 3 were associated with cirrhosis assessed by TE. However, IL28B genotype was not an independent predictor of fibrosis in our study.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115882. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115882 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as a major viral pandemic over the past two decades, infecting 170 million individuals, which equates to approximately 3% of the world's population. The prevalence of HCV varies according to geographic region, being highest in developing countries such as Egypt. HCV has a high tendency to induce chronic progressive liver damage in the form of hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or liver cancer. To date, there is no vaccine against HCV infection. Combination therapy comprising PEGylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin has been the standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C for more than a decade. However, many patients still do not respond to therapy or develop adverse events. Recently, direct antiviral agents such as protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors, or NS5A inhibitors have been used to augment PEGylated interferon and ribavirin, resulting in better efficacy, better tolerance, and a shorter treatment duration. However, most clinical trials have focused on assessing the efficacy and safety of direct antiviral agents in patients with genotype 1, and the response of other HCV genotypes has not been elucidated. Moreover, the prohibitive costs of such triple therapies will limit their use in patients in developing countries where most of the HCV infection exists. Understanding the host and viral factors associated with viral clearance is necessary for individualizing therapy to maximize sustained virologic response rates, prevent progression to liver disease, and increase the overall benefits of therapy with respect to its costs. Genome wide studies have shown significant associations between a set of polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene and natural clearance of HCV infection or after PEGylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment with and without direct antiviral agents. This paper synthesizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of HCV infection in the era of triple therapies.Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research 06/2014; 6:61-77. DOI:10.2147/HMER.S41127
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ABSTRACT: HCV RNA viral load is an important predictor of sustained virological response and, recently, a significant correlation with liver fibrosis was described. We investigated on possible influence of clinical and viro-immunological variables on HCV viral load in HIV-HCV co-infected patients over a study time of three years (2009-2012).AIDS Research and Therapy 02/2014; 11:21. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-21 · 1.84 Impact Factor