Article

Self-renewal induced efficiently, safely, and effective therapeutically with one regulatable gene in a human somatic progenitor cell.

Medical Research Institute, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, 440-746 Seoul, Korea.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 03/2011; 108(12):4876-81. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1019743108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the field of induced potency and fate reprogramming, it remains unclear what the best starting cell might be and to what extent a cell need be transported back to a more primitive state for translational purposes. Reprogramming a committed cell back to pluripotence to then instruct it toward a particular specialized cell type is demanding and may increase risks of neoplasia and undesired cell types. Precursor/progenitor cells from the organ of therapeutic concern typically lack only one critical attribute--the capacity for sustained self-renewal. We speculated that this could be induced in a regulatable manner such that cells proliferate only in vitro and differentiate in vivo without the need for promoting pluripotence or specifying lineage identity. As proof-of-concept, we generated and tested the efficiency, safety, engraftability, and therapeutic utility of "induced conditional self-renewing progenitor (ICSP) cells" derived from the human central nervous system (CNS); we conditionally induced self-renewal efficiently within neural progenitors solely by introducing v-myc tightly regulated by a tetracycline (Tet)-on gene expression system. Tet in the culture medium activated myc transcription and translation, allowing efficient expansion of homogeneous, clonal, karyotypically normal human CNS precursors ex vivo; in vivo, where Tet was absent, myc was not expressed, and self-renewal was entirely inactivated (as was tumorigenic potential). Cell proliferation ceased, and differentiation into electrophysiologically active neurons and other CNS cell types in vivo ensued upon transplantation into rats, both during development and after adult injury--with functional improvement and without neoplasia, overgrowth, deformation, emergence of non-neural cell types, phenotypic or genomic instability, or need for immunosuppression. This strategy of inducing self-renewal might be applied to progenitors from other organs and may prove to be a safe, effective, efficient, and practical method for optimizing insights gained from the ability to reprogram cells.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Evan Y Snyder, Jul 01, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
86 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of the regenerating hematopoietic system have led to the definition of many of the fundamental principles of stem cell biology. Therapies based on a range of tissue stem cells have been widely touted as a new treatment modality, presaging an emerging new specialty called regenerative medicine that promises to harness stem cells from embryonic and somatic sources to provide replacement cell therapies for genetic, malignant, and degenerative conditions. Insights borne from stem cell biology also portend development of protein and small molecule therapeutics that act on endogenous stem cells to promote repair and regeneration. Much of the newfound enthusiasm for regenerative medicine stems from the hope that advances in the laboratory will be followed soon thereafter by breakthrough treatments in the clinic. But how does one sort through the hype to judge the true promise? Are stem cell biologists and the media building expectations that cannot be met? Which diseases can be treated, and when can we expect success? In this review, we outline the realms of investigation that are capturing the most attention, and consider the current state of scientific understanding and controversy regarding the properties of embryonic and somatic (adult) stem cells. Our objective is to provide a framework for appreciating the promise while at the same time understanding the challenges behind translating fundamental stem cell biology into novel clinical therapies.
    Hematology 02/2003; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying the molecular and cellular basis of complex neuropsychiatric disorders (cNPDs) has been limited by the inaccessibility of central neurons, variability within broad diagnostic classifications, and the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Recent work utilizing neuronally differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from Mendelian and polygenic cNPDs is beginning to illuminate neuritic, synaptic or cell body variations accompanied by specific gene or protein expression alterations largely mimicking known pathology. In some cases, phenotypes have only emerged after application of cellular stress or long duration of differentiation. Pathological and cellular expression features are fully or partially responsive to pharmacological treatment highlighting the potential utility of differentiated hiPSCs for discovery of personalized therapeutics and for identifying pathogenetically relevant targets in subgroups of patients within a broad syndromic classification. Because of the inherent variability in developing and differentiating hiPSC lines and the multiple comparisons implicit in 'omics' technologies, rigorous algorithms for assuring statistical significance and independent confirmation of results, will be required for robust modeling of cNPDs.
    Current Opinion in Pharmacology 06/2011; 11(5):521-7. DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2011.05.007 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The generation of functional neural progenitor cells (NPCs) independent of donor brain tissue and embryonic tissues is of great therapeutic interest with regard to regenerative medicine and the possible treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Traditionally, NPCs are derived through the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the induction of NPCs from ESCs and iPSCs is a complicated process that increases the risk of neoplasia and undesired cell types. This process can be circumvented through the direct conversion of somatic cells from one cell type to another by ectopic expression of specifically defined transcription factors. Using gene expression profiling and parental cells from E/Nestin:EGFP transgenic mice as a monitoring system, we tested nine factors with the potential to directly convert fibroblasts into NPCs. We found that five of these factors can directly convert adult dermal fibroblasts into NPC-like cells (iNPCs), and the resulting iNPCs possessed similar properties as primary NPCs including proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. Significantly, iNPCs also exhibit chemotactic properties similar to those of primary NPCs. These provide an important alternative strategy to generate iNPCs for cell replacement therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Current Molecular Medicine 10/2011; 12(2):126-37. DOI:10.2174/156652412798889018 · 3.61 Impact Factor