The histone modifications governing TFF1 transcription mediated by estrogen receptor.
ABSTRACT Transcription regulation by histone modifications is a major contributing factor to the structural and functional diversity in biology. These modifications are encrypted as histone codes or histone languages and function to establish and maintain heritable epigenetic codes that define the identity and the fate of the cell. Despite recent advances revealing numerous histone modifications associated with transcription regulation, how such modifications dictate the process of transcription is not fully understood. Here we describe spatial and temporal analyses of the histone modifications that are introduced during estrogen receptor α (ERα)-activated transcription. We demonstrated that aborting RNA polymerase II caused a disruption of the histone modifications that are associated with transcription elongation but had a minimal effect on modifications deposited during transcription initiation. We also found that the histone H3S10 phosphorylation mark is catalyzed by mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) and is recognized by a 14-3-3ζ/14-3-3ε heterodimer through its interaction with H3K4 trimethyltransferase SMYD3 and the p52 subunit of TFIIH. We showed that H3S10 phosphorylation is a prerequisite for H3K4 trimethylation. In addition, we demonstrated that SET8/PR-Set7/KMT5A is required for ERα-regulated transcription and its catalyzed H4K20 monomethylation is implicated in both transcription initiation and elongation. Our experiments provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of histone modifications associated with ERα-regulated transcription and define the biological meaning of several key components of the histone code that governs ERα-regulated transcription.
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ABSTRACT: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation by xenobiotic ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is key to their toxicity. Following activation and nuclear translocation, AHR heterodimerizes with the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and binds to AHR response elements (AhREs) in the enhancer of target genes, of which Cyp1a1 is the prototype. Previously, we showed that concomitant with AHR binding, histone H3 in the Cyp1a1 enhancer-promoter AhRE cluster became phosphorylated in serine-10 (H3S10), suggesting that the ligand-activated AHR recruited one or more kinases to the enhancer chromatin to phosphorylate this residue. To test this hypothesis, we used mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells and their c35 mutant derivative, lacking a functional AHR, to search for candidate kinases that would phosphorylate H3S10 in an AHR dependent manner. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation with antibodies to a comprehensive set of protein kinases, we identified three kinases, IKKα, MSK1 and MSK2, whose binding to the Cyp1a1 enhancer was significantly increased by TCDD in Hepa-1c1c7 cells and absent in control c35 cells. Complexes of AHR, ARNT and IKKα could be co-immunoprecipitated from nuclei of TCDD treated Hepa-1c1c7 cells, and shRNA-mediated IKKα knockdown inhibited both H3S10 phosphorylation in the Cyp1a1 enhancer and the induction of Cyp1a1, Aldh3a1 and Nqo1 in TCDD-treated cells. We conclude that AHR recruits IKKα to the promoter of its target genes and that AHR-mediated H3S10 phosphorylation is a key epigenetic requirement for induction of AHR targets. Given the role of H3S10ph in regulation of chromosome condensation, AHR-IKKα crosstalk may be a mediator of chromatin remodeling by environmental agents.Toxicological Sciences 02/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fulvestrant is a selective estrogen receptor antagonist. Based on the measured growth inhibition of 60 human cancer cell lines (NCI60) in the presence of fulvestrant, as well as the baseline gene expression of the 60 cell lines, a gene expression score that predicts response to fulvestrant was developed. The score is based on 414 genes, 103 of which show increased expression in sensitive cell lines, while 311 show increased expression in the non-responding cell lines. The sensitivity genes primarily sense signaling through estrogen receptor alpha, whereas the resistance genes modulate the PI3K signaling pathway. The latter genes suggest that resistance to fulvestrant can be overcome by drugs targeting the PI3K pathway. The level of this gene expression score and its correlation with fulvestrant response was measured in a panel of 20 breast cancer cell lines. The predicted sensitivity matched the measured sensitivity well (CC = -0.63, P = 0.003). The predictor was applied to tumor biopies obtained from a Phase II clinical trial. The sensitivity of each patient to treatment with fulvestrant was predicted based on the RNA profile of the biopsy taken before neoadjuvant treatment and without knowledge of the subsequent response. The prediction was then compared to clinical response to show that the responders had a significantly higher sensitivity prediction than the non-responders (P = 0.01). When clinical covariates, tumor grade and estrogen receptor H-score, were included in the prediction, the difference in predicted senstivity between responders and non-responders improved (P = 0.003). Using a pre-defined cutoff to separate patients into predicted sensitive and predicted resistant yielded a positive predictive value of 88% and a negative predictive value of 100% when compared to clinical data. We conclude that pre-screening patients with the new gene expression predictor has the potential to identify those postmenopausal women with locally advanced, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer most likely to respond to fulvestrant.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87415. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in the AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor