Gender-specific lipid profiles in patients with bipolar disorder
ABSTRACT High rates of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) are reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We assessed gender effects upon rates of dyslipidemia/IR in outpatients with BD.
Data from 491 outpatients (ages 18-88) seen in the Stanford Bipolar Disorders clinic between 2000 and 2007 were evaluated. Patients were followed longitudinally and received naturalistic treatment. BD patients (n = 234; 61% female; 42% Type I, 47% Type II, 11% NOS) with a mean age of 40.3 ± 14.0 years, mean BMI 26.8 ± 6.4, and 81% Caucasian, who had one of four lipid measures (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG) at clinicians' discretion, a psychiatry clinic visit within 2 months of laboratory, and were not medicated for dyslipidemia were included. IR was imputed from TG/HDL ratio.
Women, compared with men, had significantly lower mean triglycerides (105.58 ± 64.12 vs. 137.99 ± 105.14, p = 0.009), higher mean HDL cholesterol (60.17 ± 17.56 vs. 46.07 ± 11.91 mg/dl, p < 0.001), lower mean LDL cholesterol (109.84 ± 33.47 vs. 123.79 ± 35.96 mg/dl, p = 0.004), and lower TG/HDL ratio (1.98 ± 1.73 vs. 3.59 ± 3.14 p < 0.001). Compared to men, women had a significantly lower prevalence of abnormal total cholesterol, LDL, TG, HDL, and TG/HDL ratio. No significant differences were found between men and women with regard to age, BMI, ethnicity, educational attainment, smoking habits, bipolar illness type, illness severity or duration, or weight-liable medication exposure.
In outpatients with BD, women had more favorable lipid profiles than men despite similar demographic variables. This sample of primarily Caucasian and educated patients, receiving vigilant clinical monitoring, may represent a relatively healthy psychiatric population demonstrating gender differences similar to those in the general population.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine the need for and the possible benefits and risks of statin therapy in patients with major mental illness. Patients with psychiatric conditions, especially those with major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are at increased risk of overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome, all of which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and mortality. The literature on the subject was qualitatively reviewed. Primary prevention benefits with statins are well known in the general population of high-risk patients; recent evidence suggests that statins also carry primary prevention benefits in low-risk subjects. Regrettably, the primary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in psychiatry is a neglected area in clinical practice as well as in interventional research, whether in high- or in low-risk patients. Initial concerns notwithstanding, psychiatric complications do not appear to be important among the adverse effects of statins. Although statins are associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes mellitus, myopathy, and other untoward consequences, the risk-benefit ratio appears to favor statin use. The advisability of using statins in low-risk or medically healthy subjects remains debatable. Overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome are common in patients with major mental illness, and these increase the risk of medical morbidity and mortality. Statin use should therefore be considered for the primary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in psychiatric patients, especially in those at high risk.Bipolar Disorders 10/2013; 15(8). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12130 · 4.97 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although bipolar disorder is increasingly recognised as a spectrum of multisystem disorders (ie, bipolar disorders), proposed staging models and theories of bipolar disease progression often fail to incorporate longitudinal data or data from multiple domains of dysfunction. We propose that bipolar disorders are best thought of as syndromes, with different trajectories of development and progression for various symptoms and demographic groups. This inherent complexity might be better suited to non-traditional modelling techniques, potentially derived from chaos theory. In this Personal View, we propose an allostatic load framework to account for biomarkers of physiological symptom progression. We then suggest integration of two potential domains of biobehavioural markers: sleep and wake and circadian rhythm regulation and the behavioural activation system. A satisfactory model should account for the effects of developmental stage as well as demographic characteristics, including but not limited to sex, culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The ultimate goal of a staging model has to be to inform the development of targeted, stage-appropriate interventions to reduce the substantial burden of bipolar disorders on individuals and societies.The Lancet Psychiatry 06/2015; 2(6):564-570. DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00096-6
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Worldwide studies were combined to examine two hypotheses: (i) bipolar disorder is associated with smoking behaviors, compared with the general population; and (ii) smoking behavior prevalences in bipolar disorder are intermediate between those in major depressive disorder and those in schizophrenia. Combined analyses used 56 articles on adults obtained from a PubMed search or the senior author's article collection. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) compared current smoking, heavy smoking among current smokers, smoking cessation in ever smokers, and ever smoking in bipolar disorder versus control groups. The combined OR was 3.5 (CI: 3.39-3.54) in 51 current smoking studies of bipolar disorder versus the general population from 16 countries. More limited data provided an OR = 0.34 (CI: 0.31-0.37) for smoking cessation and an OR = 3.6 (CI: 3.30-3.80) for ever smoking. The combined OR was 0.76 (CI: 0.74-0.79) for current smoking in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia in 20 studies from ten countries. Ever smoking may be lower in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.75-0.91). The OR was 2.05 (CI: 2.00-2.10) for current smoking in bipolar disorder versus major depression in 18 studies from seven countries. Ever smoking may be higher (OR = 1.5, CI: 1.40-1.70) and smoking cessation lower (OR = 0.51, CI: 0.45-0.59) in bipolar disorder than in major depression. Increased current smoking in bipolar disorder versus the general population reflected increased ever smoking (initiation) and decreased smoking cessation. Smoking behavior frequencies in bipolar disorder may be between those in depressive disorder and schizophrenia, with schizophrenia showing the highest severity level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Bipolar Disorders 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/bdi.12319 · 4.97 Impact Factor