Brown SJ, Asai Y, Cordell HJ et al.Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy. J Aller Clin Immunol 127:661-667

Epithelial Genetics Group, Division of Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 03/2011; 127(3):661-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.01.031
Source: PubMed


IgE-mediated peanut allergy is a complex trait with strong heritability, but its genetic basis is currently unknown. Loss-of-function mutations within the filaggrin gene are associated with atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases; therefore, filaggrin is a candidate gene in the etiology of peanut allergy.
To investigate the association between filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and peanut allergy.
Case-control study of 71 English, Dutch, and Irish oral food challenge-positive patients with peanut allergy and 1000 non peanut-sensitized English population controls. Replication was tested in 390 white Canadian patients with peanut allergy (defined by food challenge, or clinical history and skin prick test wheal to peanut ≥ 8 mm and/or peanut-specific IgE ≥ 15 kUL(-1)) and 891 white Canadian population controls. The most prevalent filaggrin loss-of-function mutations were assayed in each population: R501X and 2282del4 in the Europeans, and R501X, 2282del4, R2447X, and S3247X in the Canadians. The Fisher exact test and logistic regression were used to test for association; covariate analysis controlled for coexistent atopic dermatitis.
Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations showed a strong and significant association with peanut allergy in the food challenge-positive patients (P = 3.0 × 10(-6); odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.8-10.2), and this association was replicated in the Canadian study (P = 5.4 × 10(-5); odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.6). The association of filaggrin mutations with peanut allergy remains significant (P = .0008) after controlling for coexistent atopic dermatitis.
Filaggrin mutations represent a significant risk factor for IgE-mediated peanut allergy, indicating a role for epithelial barrier dysfunction in the pathogenesis of this disease.

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Available from: Suzanne G M A Pasmans, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "It has also been observed that their presence increases the probability of inhalatory allergy [17], contact allergy (e.g. to nickel) [18], and allergies caused by food allergens (e.g. peanut allergens) [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The results of long-term epidemiological studies show that the number of people suffering from allergic diseases, especially from food allergies and atopic dermatitis (AD), is still increasing. Although the research thus far has been conducted mainly in Europe, North America, and Asia, there are also data appearing from the first studies in that field among the African population. This may indicate the importance of the problem of allergic diseases. The discovery that loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding filaggrin (FLG) are the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris marked a significant breakthrough in understanding the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The presence of mutations in the filaggrin gene is also an important factor that predisposes to such allergic diseases as: allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, atopic asthma, and food allergy. So far, over 40 loss-of-function mutations and numerous silent mutations in filaggrin have been discovered.
    Przegląd Gastroenterologiczny 09/2014; 9(4):200-207. DOI:10.5114/pg.2014.45100 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous diseases or co-morbidity are important in this respect, and it is essential to study the conditions by which an early IgE-sensitization to a food allergen develops into clinical food allergy. Allergic diseases have a strong genetic component, and recent findings that the filaggrin mutation may be a risk factor for the development of peanut allergy [6] marks a significant step toward understanding the full picture of the etiology of allergy. The apparent increase in food allergy prevalence during the last decades also calls for studies of the epigenetic regulation of the sensitization phase, a field which has not been studied so far in detail. "
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    ABSTRACT: The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary scientists from academia, government, and industry participated in the symposium. Experts provided overviews on known mechanisms by which proteins in food may cause sensitization, discussed experimental models to predict protein sensitizing potential, and explored whether such experimental techniques may be applicable in regulatory settings. Three accompanying reviews address critical factors and methods for assessing allergic sensitization: 1) food-and protein-related factors; 2) host-specific factors and 3) screening methods, i.e., the ability of experimental models to predict the sensitizing potential of proteins and whether such models are applicable within regulatory settings.
    04/2014; 4(1):10. DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-4-10
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    • "As peanut sensitization is strongly related to loss-of-function variations in the filaggrin gene found in eczema [10] and to asthma [11], the relationship between peanut sensitization and peanut allergy may be confounded by eczema and asthma. To our knowledge, this has never been studied to date. "
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    ABSTRACT: The usefulness of peanut specific IgE levels for diagnosing peanut allergy has not been studied in primary and secondary care where most cases of suspected peanut allergy are being evaluated. We aimed to determine the relationship between peanut-specific IgE levels and clinical peanut allergy in peanut-sensitized children and how this was influenced by eczema, asthma and clinical setting (primary or secondary care). We enrolled 280 children (0–18 years) who tested positive for peanut-specific IgE (> 0.35 kU/L) requested by primary and secondary physicians. We used predefined criteria to classify participants into three groups: peanut allergy, no peanut allergy, or possible peanut allergy, based on responses to a validated questionnaire, a detailed food history, and results of oral food challenges. Fifty-two participants (18.6%) were classified as peanut allergy, 190 (67.9%) as no peanut allergy, and 38 (13.6%) as possible peanut allergy. The association between peanut-specific IgE levels and peanut allergy was significant but weak (OR 1.46 for a 10.0 kU/L increase in peanut-specific IgE, 95% CI 1.28-1.67). Eczema was the strongest risk factor for peanut allergy (aOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.07-10.35), adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Asthma was not significantly related to peanut allergy (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.90-4.13). Peanut allergy was less likely in primary than in secondary care participants (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.25-0.86), at all levels of peanut-specific IgE. The relationship between peanut-specific IgE and peanut allergy in children is weak, is strongly dependent on eczema, and is weaker in primary compared to secondary care. This limits the usefulness of peanut-specific IgE levels in the diagnosis of peanut allergy in children.
    10/2013; 3(1):34. DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-3-34
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