Eribulin monotherapy versus treatment of physician's choice in patients with metastatic breast cancer (EMBRACE): a phase 3 open-label randomised study
ABSTRACT Treatments with survival benefit are greatly needed for women with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. Eribulin mesilate is a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mode of action. We aimed to compare overall survival of heavily pretreated patients receiving eribulin versus currently available treatments.
In this phase 3 open-label study, women with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer were randomly allocated (2:1) to eribulin mesilate (1·4 mg/m(2) administered intravenously during 2-5 min on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle) or treatment of physician's choice (TPC). Patients had received between two and five previous chemotherapy regimens (two or more for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane, unless contraindicated. Randomisation was stratified by geographical region, previous capecitabine treatment, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00388726.
762 women were randomly allocated to treatment groups (508 eribulin, 254 TPC). Overall survival was significantly improved in women assigned to eribulin (median 13·1 months, 95% CI 11·8-14·3) compared with TPC (10·6 months, 9·3-12·5; hazard ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·66-0·99; p=0·041). The most common adverse events in both groups were asthenia or fatigue (270 [54%] of 503 patients on eribulin and 98 [40%] of 247 patients on TPC at all grades) and neutropenia (260 [52%] patients receiving eribulin and 73 [30%] of those on TPC at all grades). Peripheral neuropathy was the most common adverse event leading to discontinuation from eribulin, occurring in 24 (5%) of 503 patients.
Eribulin showed a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival compared with TPC in women with heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer. This finding challenges the notion that improved overall survival is an unrealistic expectation during evaluation of new anticancer therapies in the refractory setting.
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ABSTRACT: Background:We evaluated the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, recommended dose for phase II (P2RD), and preliminary anticancer activity of a combination eribulin and S-1 therapeutic in metastatic breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.Method:Patients aged 20-74 years were recruited. In level 1, patients received S-1 (65 mg m(-2)) from day 1 to 14, and eribulin (1.1 mg m(-2)) on day 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle. In level 2, eribulin was increased to 1.4 mg m(-2). In level 3, S-1 was increased to 80 mg m(-2).Results:Twelve patients were enrolled into three cohorts. Planned dose escalation was completed, with one case exhibiting dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 hypokalaemia) at level 3, without reaching the MTD. The P2RD was determined to be level 2 (eribulin 1.4 mg m(-2) and S-1 65 mg m(-2)). The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was neutropenia (83.3%), followed by febrile neutropenia (25.0%). Five of eleven patients (41.7%) with measurable disease had a partial response. Pharmacokinetics were characterised by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure.Conclusion:Dose level 3 was not tolerated owing to febrile neutropenia development. Thus, intermediate dose level 2 was recommended for further evaluation. Preliminary antitumour activity warrants further investigation in this setting.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 February 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.10 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 02/2015; 112(5). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.10 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a potentially dose limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like taxanes, vinca-alkaloids, platinum compounds, bortezomib and thalidomide. Supposed pathogenetic mechanisms of CIPN are axonopathy through dying back axon damage and neuronopathy in which the cell bodies of the dorsal root ganglia are involved. The exact pathophysiology however is not clear and different underlying mechanisms have been proposed for different classes of anti-cancer drugs. Sensory symptoms, like pain, numbness and tingling are most common, but motor weakness, autonomic dysfunction and even cranial nerve involvement may occur. CIPN can be painful and/or disabling, causing significant loss of functional abilities and decreasing quality of life. This can lead to dose reductions, discontinuation of treatment and may thus, ultimately, affect survival. Risk factors for CIPN include dose per cycle, cumulative dose, treatment schedule, duration of infusion, administration of other chemotherapeutics, comorbidity and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy. The exploration of polymorphisms in genes associated with incidence or severity of neuropathy might result in identifying individuals being at higher risk of neurotoxicity. An update on genes possibly associated with CIPN is given. CIPN may be reversible or be more or less permanent. Many preventive and treatment strategies have been explored, without significant efficacy up till now. In this review we describe the different drug-related characteristics of CIPN, pharmacogenomic studies, neurophysiological findings, treatment and outcome, and neuroprotective strategies.Cancer Treatment Reviews 08/2014; 40(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2014.04.004 · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background:Eribulin mesilate (eribulin), a non-taxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor, has shown trends towards greater overall survival (OS) compared with progression-free survival in late-stage metastatic breast cancer patients in the clinic. This finding suggests that eribulin may have additional, previously unrecognised antitumour mechanisms beyond its established antimitotic activity. To investigate this possibility, eribulin's effects on the balance between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in human breast cancer cells were investigated.Methods:Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which are oestrogen receptor (ER-)/progesterone receptor (PR-)/human epithelial growth receptor 2 (HER2-) and have a mesenchymal phenotype, were treated with eribulin for 7 days, followed by measurement of EMT-related gene and protein expression changes in the surviving cells by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunoblot, respectively. In addition, proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were also conducted in eribulin-treated cells. To investigate the effects of eribulin on TGF-β/Smad signalling, the phosphorylation status of Smad proteins was analysed. In vivo, the EMT/MET status of TNBC xenografts in mice treated with eribulin was examined by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Finally, an experimental lung metastasis model was utilised to gauge the metastatic activity of eribulin-treated TNBC in the in vivo setting.Results:Treatment of TNBC cells with eribulin in vitro led to morphological changes consistent with transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial phenotype. Expression analyses of EMT markers showed that eribulin treatment led to decreased expression of several mesenchymal marker genes, together with increased expression of several epithelial markers. In the TGF-β induced EMT model, eribulin treatment reversed EMT, coincident with inhibition of Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. Consistent with these changes, TNBC cells treated with eribulin for 7 days showed decreased capacity for in vitro migration and invasiveness. In in vivo xenograft models, eribulin treatment reversed EMT and induced MET as assessed by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses of epithelial and mesenchymal marker proteins. Finally, surviving TNBC cells pretreated in vitro with eribulin for 7 days led to decreased numbers of lung metastasis when assessed in an in vivo experimental metastasis model.Conclusions:Eribulin exerted significant effects on EMT/MET-related pathway components in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, consistent with a phenotypic switch from mesenchymal to epithelial states, and corresponding to observed decreases in migration and invasiveness in vitro as well as experimental metastasis in vivo. These preclinical findings may provide a plausible scientific basis for clinical observations of prolonged OS by suppression of further spread of metastasis in breast cancer patients treated with eribulin.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 25 February 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.80 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; 110(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.80 · 4.82 Impact Factor