The North American Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (NA LiSN-S): Normative Data and Test-Retest Reliability Studies for Adolescents and Young Adults
ABSTRACT The Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences test (LiSN-S; Cameron and Dillon, 2009) was originally developed to assess auditory stream segregation skills in children aged 6 to 11 yr with suspected central auditory processing disorder. The LiSN-S creates a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones. A simple repetition-response protocol is used to assess a listener's speech reception threshold (SRT) for target sentences presented in competing speech maskers. Performance is measured as the improvement in SRT in dB gained when either pitch, spatial, or both pitch and spatial cues are incorporated in the maskers. A North American-accented version of the LiSN-S (NA LiSN-S) is available for use in the United States and Canada.
To develop normative data for adolescents and adults on the NA LiSN-S, to compare these data with those of children aged 6 to 11 yr as documented in Cameron et al (2009), and to consolidate the child, adolescent, and adult normative and retest data to allow the software to be used with a wider population.
In a descriptive design, normative data and test-retest reliability data were collected.
One hundred and twenty normally hearing participants took part in the normative data study (67 adolescents aged 12 yr, 1 mo, to 17 yr, 10 mo, and 53 adults aged 19 yr, 10 mo, to 30 yr, 30 mo). Forty-nine participants returned between 1 and 4 mo after the initial assessment for retesting. Participants were recruited from sites in Cincinnati, Dallas, and Calgary.
When combined with data collected from children aged 6 to 11 yr, a trend of improved performance as a function of increasing age was found across performance measures. ANOVA (analysis of variance) revealed a significant effect of age on performance. Planned contrasts revealed that there were no significant differences between adults and children aged 13 yr and older on the low-cue SRT; 14 yr and older on talker and spatial advantage; 15 yr and older on total advantage; and 16 yr and older on the high-cue SRT. Mean test-retest differences on the various NA LiSN-S performance measures for the combined child, adult, and adolescent data ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 dB. Paired comparisons revealed test-retest differences were not significant on any measure of the NA LiSN-S except low-cue SRT. Test-retest differences across measures did not differ as a function of age. Test and retest scores were significantly correlated for all NA LiSN-S measures.
The ability to use either spatial or talker cues in isolation becomes adultlike by about 14 yr of age, whereas the ability to combine spatial and talker cues does not fully mature until closer to adulthood. By consolidating child, adolescent, and adult normative and retest data the NA LiSN-S can now been utilized to assess auditory processing skills in a wider population.
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ABSTRACT: The Australian version of the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (LiSN-S) was originally developed to assess auditory stream segregation skills in children aged 6 to 11 yr with suspected central auditory processing disorder. The LiSN-S creates a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones. A simple repetition-response protocol is used to assess a listener's speech reception threshold (SRT) for target sentences presented in competing speech maskers. Performance is measured as the improvement in SRT in decibels gained when either pitch, spatial, or both pitch and spatial cues are incorporated in the maskers. To collect additional normative data on the Australian LiSN-S for adolescents and adults up to 60 yr of age, to analyze the effects of age on LiSN-S performance, to examine retest reliability in the older population, and to extrapolate findings from the Australian data so that the North American version of the test can also be used clinically with older adults. In a descriptive design, normative and test-retest reliability data were collected from adolescents and adults and combined with previously published data from Australian children aged 6 to 11 yr. One hundred thirty-two participants with normal hearing aged 12 yr, 0 mo, to 60 yr, 7 mo, took part in the normative data study. Fifty-five participants returned between 2 and 4 mo after the initial assessment for retesting. Results: Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of age on LiSN-S performance (p < .01 for all LiSN-S measures, ηp2 ranging from 0.16 to 0.54). On the low and high cue SRT measures, planned contrasts revealed significant differences between adults and children aged 13 yr and younger, as well as between 50- to 60-yr-olds and younger adults aged 18-29 yr. Whereas there were significant differences between adults and children on the talker, spatial, and total advantage measures, there were no significant differences in performance in adults aged 18-60 yr. There was a small but significant improvement on retest ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 dB across the four LiSN-S test conditions (p ranging from .01 to <.001). However, there was no significant difference between test and retest on the advantage measures (p ranging from .143 to .768). Test-retest differences across all LiSN-S measures were significantly correlated (r ranging from 0.2 to 0.7, p ranging from .023 to <.00000001) and did not differ as a function of age (p ranging from .178 to .980). As there was no significant difference among adults aged 18-60 yr on the LiSN-S talker, spatial, and total advantage measures, it appears that the decline in ability to understand speech in noise experienced by 50- to 60-yr-olds is not related to their ability to use either spatial or pitch cues. This result suggests that some other factor/s contributes to the decline in speech perception in noise experienced by older adults that is reported in the literature and was demonstrated in this study on the LiSN-S low and high cue SRT measures.Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 11/2011; 22(10):697-709. DOI:10.3766/jaaa.22.10.7 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The LiSN & Learn auditory training software was developed specifically to improve binaural processing skills in children with suspected central auditory processing disorder who were diagnosed as having a spatial processing disorder (SPD). SPD is defined here as a condition whereby individuals are deficient in their ability to use binaural cues to selectively attend to sounds arriving from one direction while simultaneously suppressing sounds arriving from another. As a result, children with SPD have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, such as in the classroom. To develop and evaluate the LiSN & Learn auditory training software for children diagnosed with the Listening in Spatialized Noise-Sentences Test (LiSN-S) as having an SPD. The LiSN-S is an adaptive speech-in-noise test designed to differentially diagnose spatial and pitch-processing deficits in children with suspected central auditory processing disorder. Participants were nine children (aged between 6 yr, 9 mo, and 11 yr, 4 mo) who performed outside normal limits on the LiSN-S. In a pre-post study of treatment outcomes, participants trained on the LiSN & Learn for 15 min per day for 12 weeks. Participants acted as their own control. Participants were assessed on the LiSN-S, as well as tests of attention and memory and a self-report questionnaire of listening ability. Performance on all tasks was reassessed after 3 mo where no further training occurred. The LiSN & Learn produces a three-dimensional auditory environment under headphones on the user's home computer. The child's task was to identify a word from a target sentence presented in background noise. A weighted up-down adaptive procedure was used to adjust the signal level of the target based on the participant's response. On average, speech reception thresholds on the LiSN & Learn improved by 10 dB over the course of training. As hypothesized, there were significant improvements in posttraining performance on the LiSN-S conditions where the target and distracter stimuli are spatially separated and which specifically evaluate binaural processing ability (p ranging from <.003 to .0001, η2 ranging from 0.694 to 0.873). In contrast, there was no improvement on the LiSN-S control conditions where the target and distracter stimuli emanate from the same direction (p ranging from .07 to .86, η2 ranging from 0.362 to 0.004). Significant improvements were found posttraining on measures of memory, on one measure of attention, and on self-reported ratings of listening ability. There were no significant differences between post- and 3 mo posttraining scores on any of the assessment tools. The initial LiSN & Learn study has shown that children as young as 6 yr of age are able to complete the training (although some coaxing was needed in a minority of cases). Both parents and children have reported benefits from the training, and feedback from the trial has resulted in extra features being added to the software. In order to further evaluate the efficacy of LiSN & Learn to remediate binaural processing deficits in children a clinical trial is currently under way utilizing a randomized blinded control group design.Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 11/2011; 22(10):678-96. DOI:10.3766/jaaa.22.10.6 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Difficulty understanding speech in background noise, even with amplification to restore audibility, is a common problem for hearing-impaired individuals and is especially frequent in older adults. Despite the debilitating nature of the problem the cause is not yet completely clear. This review considers the role of spatial processing ability in understanding speech in noise, highlights the potential impact of disordered spatial processing, and attempts to establish if aging leads to reduced spatial processing ability. Evidence supporting and opposing the hypothesis that spatial processing is disordered among the aging population is presented. With a few notable exceptions, spatial processing ability was shown to be reduced in an older population in comparison to young adults, leading to poorer speech understanding in noise. However, it is argued that to conclude aging negatively effects spatial processing ability may be oversimplified or even premature given potentially confounding factors such as cognitive ability and hearing impairment. Further research is required to determine the effect of aging and hearing impairment on spatial processing and to investigate possible remediation options for spatial processing disorder.Trends in Amplification 11/2011; 15(3):116-26. DOI:10.1177/1084713811424885 · 1.21 Impact Factor