Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

Hokkaido Research Subteam for Waste Recycling System, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555, Japan.
Microbial Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 11/2011; 4(6):700-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-7915.2010.00236.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification-denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process.

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