Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 46.57). 03/2011; 111(5):3577-613. DOI: 10.1021/cr100290v
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A comprehensive review on electrochemical energy storage (EES) technologies or batteries is presented. Principles of operation and the status and challenges in materials, chemistries, and technologies of these batteries is also provided. A redox flow battery (RFB), is a type of rechargeable battery that stores electrical energy, typically in two soluble redox couples contained in external electrolyte tanks sized in accordance with application requirements. Sodium-beta alumina membrane batteries reversibly charge and discharge electricity via sodium ion transport across a solid electrolyte that is doped with Li or Mg. Li-ion batteries store electrical energy in electrodes made of Li-intercalation compounds and graphite is the material of choice for most lithium-ion candidate chemistries. Lead-carbon batteries with a split negative electrode is known as an ultrabattery, which was invented by CSIRO in Australia.

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Available from: Daiwon Choi, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Non-aqueous lithium (Li)eoxygen (O 2 ) batteries are exceedingly attractive technologies, with the potential to surpass the capability of current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, due to their high theoretical specific energy (11,680 Wh kg À1 ) [1] [2]. To unlock this battery's full potential, however, several technical issues must first be resolved. "
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    Journal of Power Sources 08/2015; 297:174–180. DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.07.089 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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    Desalination 03/2015; 359:52–58. DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2014.12.010 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Some of the advantages of VRB can be mentioned as follow: – high energy efficiency, low and controllable losses, not terminating of battery life due to discharge, cyclic operation without decline in energy storage ability, not having chemical declination because of corrosion; – possibility of electrolyte provision without oxidation, possibility of probable oxidized electrolyte recovery using chemical/electrochemical processes, unlimited electrolyte lifetime without elimination, possibility of electrolyte recovery for other applications [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two and three dimensional modeling of a single cell of vanadium redox flow battery has been done thoroughly according to electrochemical and fluid mechanic equations in this study. The modeling has been done in stationary state and its results have been presented in three chemical, electrical and mechanical sub models. The parametric analysis on some of important factors in cell operation demon-strated that increase in electrode and membrane conductivity and electrode porosity contributes to electric potential increase in cells. Also operational temperature increase leads to decrease in cells' voltage. Better fluid distribution on the electrode surface area results in better cell operation, therefore the electrolyte flow distribution form in cell has been studied by designing different flow frames. Modified Navier-Stokes equations have been used in these calculations for porous media. The most coverage on electrode surface and low pressure loss had been the best case criteria. Key words: Vanadium redox battery / stationary model / computational fluid dynamic / porous media / electrolyte distribution
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