Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 46.57). 03/2011; 111(5):3577-613. DOI: 10.1021/cr100290v
Source: PubMed


A comprehensive review on electrochemical energy storage (EES) technologies or batteries is presented. Principles of operation and the status and challenges in materials, chemistries, and technologies of these batteries is also provided. A redox flow battery (RFB), is a type of rechargeable battery that stores electrical energy, typically in two soluble redox couples contained in external electrolyte tanks sized in accordance with application requirements. Sodium-beta alumina membrane batteries reversibly charge and discharge electricity via sodium ion transport across a solid electrolyte that is doped with Li or Mg. Li-ion batteries store electrical energy in electrodes made of Li-intercalation compounds and graphite is the material of choice for most lithium-ion candidate chemistries. Lead-carbon batteries with a split negative electrode is known as an ultrabattery, which was invented by CSIRO in Australia.

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    • "Redox flow batteries are energy storage systems that are designed for use in large-scale applications such as peak load leveling and effective utilization of intermittent renewable energy sources [1] [2] [3] [4]. In particular, the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has been regarded as the most promising technology, primarily because it uses the same element in both half-cells, which avoids cross-contamination between the two half-cell electrolytes [5] [6]. "

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