Belatacept-based regimens are associated with improved cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors compared with cyclosporine in kidney transplant recipients (BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT studies).
ABSTRACT Cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death with a functioning graft among kidney transplant recipients, can be exacerbated by immunosuppressive drugs, particularly the calcineurin inhibitors. Belatacept, a selective co-stimulation blocker, may provide a better cardiovascular/metabolic risk profile than current immunosuppressants.
Cardiovascular and metabolic endpoints from two Phase III studies (BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT) of belatacept-based regimens in kidney transplant recipients were assessed at month 12. Each study assessed belatacept in more intensive (MI) and less intensive (LI) regimens versus cyclosporine A (CsA). These secondary endpoints included changes in blood pressure, changes in serum lipids, and the incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT).
A total of 1209 patients were randomized and transplanted across the two studies. Mean systolic blood pressure was 6 to 9 mm Hg lower and mean diastolic blood pressure was 3 to 4 mm Hg lower in the MI and LI groups versus CsA (P ≤ 0.002) across both studies at month 12. Non-HDL cholesterol was lower in the belatacept groups versus CsA (P<0.01 MI or LI vs. CsA in each study). Serum triglycerides were lower in the belatacept groups versus CsA (P<0.02 MI or LI vs. CsA in each study). NODAT occurred less often in the belatacept groups versus CsA in a prespecified pooled analysis (P<0.05 MI or LI vs. CsA).
At month 12, belatacept regimens were associated with better cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles, with lower blood pressure and serum lipids and less NODAT versus CsA. The overall profile of belatacept will continue to be assessed over the 3-year trials.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: With further reduction in surgical complications and improvement in immunosuppressive protocols, pancreas transplant offers excellent outcomes for patients with diabetes. However, long-term survival of pancreas allograft is affected not only by rejection but also by immunosuppressive regimen toxicity. Areas covered: This article reviews the existing literature and knowledge of tacrolimus toxicity and focuses on its diabetogenic effect after pancreas transplant. Some clinically relevant drug-drug interactions with glucocorticoids and sirolimus are also highlighted. This review also summarizes the diabetogenic mechanisms of tacrolimus, the alternatives to minimize these effects, and the main differential diagnosis of hyperglycemia after pancreas transplant. Expert opinion: Tacrolimus is a potent calcineurin inhibitor, an important pathway that regulates pancreatic development. Tacrolimus can induce β-cell apoptosis, decrease insulin exocytosis and reduce insulin gene transcription, which ultimately lead to impaired functional β-cell mass after pancreas transplant. Furthermore, insulin resistance can exacerbate the diabetogenic effect of tacrolimus due to inhibition of insulin gene transcription and β-cell proliferation. It is important to critically analyze the results of clinical studies and investigate new immunosuppressive drugs and/or novel drug combinations. It is equally important to comprehend and interpret experimental data. Therefore, minimization of side effects, based on safe approaches, can prolong pancreas allograft survival.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 09/2014; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Belatacept was approved for prevention of acute rejection in adult kidney transplantation in 2011 based on two randomized, controlled, multicenter phase 3 studies. Long-term experience over 10 years with belatacept-based immunosuppression after kidney transplantation has not been reported before. Analyzed were 20 patients who had been included into a randomized multicenter phase 2 study by our institution between March 2001 and November 2002. For 10-year follow-up, three different groups could be analyzed: 1) patients with primary calcineurin inhibitor-based (CNI-based) immunosuppression (n = 5), 2) patients with early switch from a belatacept-based to a CNI-based regimen within the first 14 months (n = 8) and 3) patients with completely CNI-free belatacept immunosuppression (n = 7). Fifteen patients received primary belatacept-based immunosuppression and five patients primary cyclosporine A (CyA). Five patients are still on belatacept. Kidney function measured by serum creatinine levels worsened in the CNI group and the belatacept to CNI switch group during long-term follow-up whereas all patients receiving belatacept throughout follow-up showed stable creatinine values. Acute rejections occurred predominantly in the first 12 months after transplantation and were responsible for four of seven switches from belatacept- to CNI-based immunosuppression within the first 14 months. Five of the 20 patients died. Belatacept is effective and safe in renal transplant patients and was not associated with graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy. Belatacept was well tolerated in all patients and caused less nephrotoxic side effects and was well accepted in most patients.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 04/2014; 6(2):98-110.
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ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation remains limited by toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. Belatacept is a less toxic CNI alternative, but existing regimens rely on steroids and have higher rejection rates. Experimentally, donor bone marrow and sirolimus promote belatacept's efficacy. To investigate a belatacept-based regimen without CNIs or steroids, we transplanted recipients of live donor kidneys using alemtuzumab induction, monthly belatacept and daily sirolimus. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive unfractionated donor bone marrow. After 1 year, patients were allowed to wean from sirolimus. Patients were followed clinically and with surveillance biopsies. Twenty patients were transplanted, all successfully. Mean creatinine (estimated GFR) was 1.10 ± 0.07 mg/dL (89 ± 3.56 mL/min) and 1.13 ± 0.07 mg/dL (and 88 ± 3.48 mL/min) at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Excellent results were achieved irrespective of bone marrow infusion. Ten patients elected oral immunosuppressant weaning, seven of whom were maintained rejection-free on monotherapy belatacept. Those failing to wean were successfully maintained on belatacept-based regimens supplemented by oral immunosuppression. Seven patients declined immunosuppressant weaning and three patients were denied weaning for associated medical conditions; all remained rejection-free. Belatacept and sirolimus effectively prevent kidney allograft rejection without CNIs or steroids when used following alemtuzumab induction. Selected, immunologically low-risk patients can be maintained solely on once monthly intravenous belatacept.American Journal of Transplantation 03/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor