Cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death with a functioning graft among kidney transplant recipients, can be exacerbated by immunosuppressive drugs, particularly the calcineurin inhibitors. Belatacept, a selective co-stimulation blocker, may provide a better cardiovascular/metabolic risk profile than current immunosuppressants.
Cardiovascular and metabolic endpoints from two Phase III studies (BENEFIT and BENEFIT-EXT) of belatacept-based regimens in kidney transplant recipients were assessed at month 12. Each study assessed belatacept in more intensive (MI) and less intensive (LI) regimens versus cyclosporine A (CsA). These secondary endpoints included changes in blood pressure, changes in serum lipids, and the incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT).
A total of 1209 patients were randomized and transplanted across the two studies. Mean systolic blood pressure was 6 to 9 mm Hg lower and mean diastolic blood pressure was 3 to 4 mm Hg lower in the MI and LI groups versus CsA (P ≤ 0.002) across both studies at month 12. Non-HDL cholesterol was lower in the belatacept groups versus CsA (P<0.01 MI or LI vs. CsA in each study). Serum triglycerides were lower in the belatacept groups versus CsA (P<0.02 MI or LI vs. CsA in each study). NODAT occurred less often in the belatacept groups versus CsA in a prespecified pooled analysis (P<0.05 MI or LI vs. CsA).
At month 12, belatacept regimens were associated with better cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles, with lower blood pressure and serum lipids and less NODAT versus CsA. The overall profile of belatacept will continue to be assessed over the 3-year trials.
"Interestingly, mTOR inhibitors even have antiarteriosclerotic properties . Belatacept has a favorable cardiovascular risk profile compared with CNI as well  . To date, however, data on the effect of belatacept on arterial stiffness are lacking. "
"sCD30 is a known predictive serum marker for graft rejection [18, 19] and outcome after kidney transplantation . Furthermore, belatacept regimens were shown to be associated with better cardiovascular and metabolic risk profiles, with lower blood pressure, lower serum lipids and less new onset diabetes mellitus (NODAT) in comparison to CyA at 12 months after transplantation . Thus a lower rate of death with functioning graft and likewise CAN would be expected after kidney transplantation with long-term betalacept-based immunosuppression. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Belatacept was approved for prevention of acute rejection in adult kidney transplantation in 2011 based on two randomized, controlled, multicenter phase 3 studies. Long-term experience over 10 years with belatacept-based immunosuppression after kidney transplantation has not been reported before.
Analyzed were 20 patients who had been included into a randomized multicenter phase 2 study by our institution between March 2001 and November 2002. For 10-year follow-up, three different groups could be analyzed: 1) patients with primary calcineurin inhibitor-based (CNI-based) immunosuppression (n = 5), 2) patients with early switch from a belatacept-based to a CNI-based regimen within the first 14 months (n = 8) and 3) patients with completely CNI-free belatacept immunosuppression (n = 7).
Fifteen patients received primary belatacept-based immunosuppression and five patients primary cyclosporine A (CyA). Five patients are still on belatacept. Kidney function measured by serum creatinine levels worsened in the CNI group and the belatacept to CNI switch group during long-term follow-up whereas all patients receiving belatacept throughout follow-up showed stable creatinine values. Acute rejections occurred predominantly in the first 12 months after transplantation and were responsible for four of seven switches from belatacept- to CNI-based immunosuppression within the first 14 months. Five of the 20 patients died.
Belatacept is effective and safe in renal transplant patients and was not associated with graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy. Belatacept was well tolerated in all patients and caused less nephrotoxic side effects and was well accepted in most patients.
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 04/2014; 6(2):98-110. DOI:10.14740/jocmr1697w
"Belatacept regimens were noninferior to cyclosporine in terms of patient and graft survival, and they were associated to a better graft function and a reduced incidence of chronic nephropathy. Of note, betalacept was also associated to reduced blood pressure , lower lipid levels and reduced incidence of new onset diabetes after transplant, improving the cardiovascular risk profile . On the opposite, there was a higher rate of acute rejection episodes and an increased incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) compared with the cyclosporine group (mainly during intensive treatment). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costimulatory pathways play a key role in immunity, providing the second signal required for a full activation of adaptive immune response. Different costimulatory families (CD28, TNF-related, adhesion and TIM molecules), characterized by structural and functional analogies, have been described. Costimulatory molecules modulate T cell activation, B cell function, Ig production, cytokine release and many other processes, including atherosclerosis. Patients suffering from renal diseases present significant alterations of the costimulatory pathways, which might make them particularly liable to infections. These alterations are further pronounced in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. In these patients, different costimulatory patterns have been related to distinct clinical features. The importance that costimulation has gained during the last years has led to development of several pharmacological approaches to modulate this critical step in the immune activation. Different drugs, mainly monoclonal antibodies targeting various costimulatory molecules (i.e. anti-CD80, CTLA-4 fusion proteins, anti-CD154, anti-CD40, etc.) were designed and tested in both experimental and clinical studies. The results of these studies highlighted some criticisms, but also some promising findings and now costimulatory blockade is considered a suitable strategy, with belatacept (a CTLA-4 fusion protein) being approved as the first costimulatory blocker for use in renal transplantation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on costimulatory pathways in the setting of kidney transplantation. We describe the principal costimulatory molecule families, their role and clinical significance in patients undergoing renal transplantation and the new therapeutic approaches that have been developed to modulate the costimulatory pathways.
International Reviews Of Immunology 10/2013; 33(3). DOI:10.3109/08830185.2013.829470 · 4.10 Impact Factor
A T Cheong, S G Sazlina, S F Tong, A S Azah, S Salmiah
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