A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Bipolar Disorder
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effectiveness of adjunctive cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) to prevent recurrence of episodes in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
A randomized controlled single-blind trial was conducted with 50 patients with bipolar disorder types I and II followed up for at least 12 months in an outpatient service and whose disease was in remission. An experimental CBGT manual was developed and added to treatment as usual (TAU), and results were compared with TAU alone.
Intention-to-treat analysis showed that there was no difference between groups in terms of time until any relapse (Wilcoxon = 0.667; p = 0.414). When considering type of relapse, there was still no difference in either depressive (Wilcoxon = 3.328; p = 0.068) or manic episodes (Wilcoxon = 1.498; p = 0.221). Although occurrence of episodes also did not differ between groups (χ(2) = 0.28; p = 0.59), median time to relapse was longer for patients treated with CBGT compared to TAU (Mann-Whitney = -2.554; p = 0.011).
Time to recurrence and number of episodes were not different in the group of patients treated with CBGT. However, median time to relapse was shorter in the TAU group. Studies with larger samples may help to clarify whether our CBGT approach prevents new episodes of bipolar disorder. Our findings also indicated that CBGT is feasible in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and should be investigated in future studies. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of a controlled trial of CBGT for euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to give an update on recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Methodological issues like the inclusion of differing patient populations, differences in who (patients, family members, caregivers) received psychotherapy, and varying follow-up periods make it difficult to compare RCTs. Despite heterogeneous results, the majority of the studies showed relevant positive results in terms of reduced relapse rates, increased quality of life, better functioning or more favorable symptomatic outcome. Recent RCTs evaluating psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder have added to the evidence, thereby broadening existing therapeutic options. These promising results should encourage future studies leading to a better understanding of what kind of patient or caregiver will benefit from what kind of therapy, and how efficient psychosocial interventions can be under routine conditions.Current opinion in psychiatry 09/2011; 24(6):549-55. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834b7c5f · 3.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current statement is a systematic review of the available data concerning the efficacy of medication treatment of bipolar disorder (BP). A systematic MEDLINE search was made concerning the treatment of BP (RCTs) with the names of treatment options as keywords. The search was updated on 10 March 2012. The literature suggests that lithium, first and second generation antipsychotics and valproate and carbamazepine are efficacious in the treatment of acute mania. Quetiapine and the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination are also efficacious for treating bipolar depression. Antidepressants should only be used in combination with an antimanic agent, because they can induce switching to mania/hypomania/mixed states/rapid cycling when utilized as monotherapy. Lithium, olanzapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole are efficacious during the maintenance phase. Lamotrigine is efficacious in the prevention of depression, and it remains to be clarified whether it is also efficacious for mania. There is some evidence on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions as an adjunctive treatment to medication. Electroconvulsive therapy is an option for refractory patients. In acute manic patients who are partial responders to lithium/valproate/carbamazepine, adding an antipsychotic is a reasonable choice. The combination with best data in acute bipolar depression is lithium plus lamotrigine. Patients stabilized on combination treatment might do worse if shifted to monotherapy during maintenance, and patients could benefit with add-on treatment with olanzapine, valproate, an antidepressant, or lamotrigine, depending on the index acute phase. A variety of treatment options for BP are available today, but still unmet needs are huge. Combination therapy may improve the treatment outcome but it also carries more side-effect burden. Further research is necessary as well as the development of better guidelines and algorithms for the step-by-step rational treatment.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 05/2012; 262 Suppl 1(S1):1-48. DOI:10.1007/s00406-012-0323-x · 3.36 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) can have an impact on psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL). Several studies have shown that structured psychotherapy in conjunction with pharmacotherapy may modify the course of some disorders; however, few studies have investigated the results of group cognitive behavior therapy (G-CBT) for BD. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of 14 sessions of G-CBT for BD patients, comparing this intervention plus pharmacotherapy to treatment as usual (TAU; only pharmacotherapy). Forty-one patients with BD I and II participated in this study and were randomly allocated to each group (G-CBT: N = 27; TAU: N = 14). Thirty-seven participants completed the treatment (women: N = 66.67%; mean age = 41.5 years). QoL and mood symptoms were assessed in all participants. Scores changed significantly by the end of treatment in favor of the G-CBT group. The G-CBT group presented significantly better QoL in seven of the eight sub-items assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey SF-36 scale. At the end of treatment, the G-CBT group exhibited lower scores for mania (not statistically significant) and depression (statistically significant) as well as a reduction in the frequency and duration of mood episodes (P < 0.01). The group variable was significant for the reduction of depression scores over time. This clinical change may explain the improvement in six of the eight subscales of QoL (P < 0.05). The G-CBT group showed better QoL in absolute values in all aspects and significant improvements in nearly all subscales. These results were not observed in the TAU control group.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 06/2012; 45(9):862-8. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2012007500109 · 1.08 Impact Factor