A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Bipolar Disorder
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effectiveness of adjunctive cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) to prevent recurrence of episodes in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
A randomized controlled single-blind trial was conducted with 50 patients with bipolar disorder types I and II followed up for at least 12 months in an outpatient service and whose disease was in remission. An experimental CBGT manual was developed and added to treatment as usual (TAU), and results were compared with TAU alone.
Intention-to-treat analysis showed that there was no difference between groups in terms of time until any relapse (Wilcoxon = 0.667; p = 0.414). When considering type of relapse, there was still no difference in either depressive (Wilcoxon = 3.328; p = 0.068) or manic episodes (Wilcoxon = 1.498; p = 0.221). Although occurrence of episodes also did not differ between groups (χ(2) = 0.28; p = 0.59), median time to relapse was longer for patients treated with CBGT compared to TAU (Mann-Whitney = -2.554; p = 0.011).
Time to recurrence and number of episodes were not different in the group of patients treated with CBGT. However, median time to relapse was shorter in the TAU group. Studies with larger samples may help to clarify whether our CBGT approach prevents new episodes of bipolar disorder. Our findings also indicated that CBGT is feasible in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and should be investigated in future studies. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of a controlled trial of CBGT for euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic condition with a high relapse rate, morbidity and psychosocial impairment that often persist despite pharmacotherapy, highlighting the need for adjunctive psychosocial treatments. It is still unclear which populations are most likely to benefit from which approach and the best timing to implement them. A review was conducted with the aim to determine what the efficacious psychological treatments are, for whom and when. Randomized-controlled trials and key studies in adults with BD published until June 2013 were included RESULTS: The adjunctive psychological treatments most commonly tested in BD were cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family intervention. The efficacy of specific adjunctive psychosocial interventions has been proven not only in short- but also long-term follow-up for some treatments. Outcomes vary between studies, with most trials focused on clinical variables like recurrence prevention or symptom reduction and less attention, although gradually expanding, paid to other aspects such as psychosocial functioning. The samples were usually in remission or with mild symptoms when recruited but there were a few studies with acute patients, which resulted in discrepant findings. The efficacy of psychological interventions seems to differ depending on the characteristics of the subjects and the course of the illness. Different approaches, such as functional remediation and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, have begun to be tested in BD. Heterogeneity of comparison groups. Adjunctive psychological treatments can improve BD outcomes. Although several moderators and mediators have been identified, more research is needed to design shorter but effective interventions tailored to the characteristics of the target population. Ideally, the treatment should be introduced as soon as possible, although it does not mean that more complex patients would not benefit from psychotherapy.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2013; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.017 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Existing psychological therapies for bipolar disorders have been found to have mixed results, with a consensus that they provide a significant, but modest, effect on clinical outcomes. Typically, these approaches have focused on promoting strategies to prevent future relapse. An alternative treatment approach, termed 'Think Effectively About Mood Swings' (TEAMS) addresses current symptoms, including subclinical hypomania, depression and anxiety, and promotes long-term recovery. Following the publication of a theoretical model, a range of research studies testing the model and a case series have demonstrated positive results. The current study reports the protocol of a feasibility randomized controlled trial to inform a future multi-centre trial.Trials 01/2014; 15(1):405. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-405 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Music therapy (MT) has been shown to be efficacious for mental health care clients with various disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and substance abuse. Referral to MT in clinical practice is often based on other factors than diagnosis. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of resource-oriented MT for mental health care clients with low motivation for other therapies. Method: This was a pragmatic parallel trial. In specialised centres in Norway, Austria and Australia, 144 adults with non-organic mental disorders and low therapy motivation were randomised to 3 months of biweekly individual, resource-oriented MT plus treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. TAU was typically intensive (71% were inpatients) and included the best combination of therapies available for each participant, excluding MT. Blinded assessments of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and 15 secondary outcomes were collected before randomisation and after 1, 3 and 9 months. Changes were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis using generalised estimating equations in longitudinal linear models, controlling for diagnosis, site and time point. Results: MT was superior to TAU for total negative symptoms (SANS, d = 0.54, p < 0.001) as well as functioning, clinical global impressions, social avoidance through music, and vitality (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: Individual MT as conducted in routine practice is an effective addition to usual care for mental health care clients with low motivation.Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 08/2013; 82(5):319-331. DOI:10.1159/000348452 · 9.37 Impact Factor